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Flashcards in Treatments requiring wax Deck (72):
1

An injury caused by friction of the skin against a firm object.

Abrasion

2

  • Scraping removes the epiderma and exposes the derma to air.
  • The result is a hard, brown surface.
  • Small irregularities may protrude from the area.

Characteristics of Abrasions

3

Should be removed after embalming by use of:

  • Scalpel
  • Sandpaper/emery cloth

Abrasion Irregularities

4

  • Paint with an opaque cosmetic undercoat.
    • Liquid cosmetic undercoat
    • Pale colored volatile cosmetic -- paint.

Before Waxing - Abrasions

5

  • Arts and craft paint.
  • Typing correction fluid
  • Radiator paint

Undercoat Substitutes

6

Deposit wax in a lump at the center and taper to the margins.

Waxing Abrasions

7

Classified according to their effect on the tissues as:

  • First Degree
  • Second Degree
  • Third Degree
  • Fourth Degree

Burns

8

An injury caused by heat which produces redness ofthe skin.

First Degree Burns

9

Cover the face with massage cream.

During Embalming- First Degree Burns

10

Corrective cosmetic treatment.

After Embalming- First Degree Burns

11

A burn resulting in acute inflammation of the skin producing blisters and swelling.

Second Degree Burns

12

  • Hair may be singed or completely burned.
  • Eyes and lips may be swollen.

Characteristics of Second Degree Burns

13

  1. Blisters are punctured.
  2. Shave face and coat thickly with massage cream or petroleum jelly.
  3. Heavily blistered areas may coagulate.

Before Embalming- Second Degree Burns

14

  • Apply external cavity fluid packs.
  • Hypodermic injection may be necessary.

Treating coagulation of heavy blisters (before embalming)

15

  1. Carefully peel away loose skin.
  2. Apply a cavity fluid pack for several hours.
  3. Swollen lips and eyes may be surgically reduced.

After Embalming - Second Degree Burns

16

  1. Dry and seal denuded (where there were blisters) areas before waxing.
  2. Treat Singed Hair
  3. Cover badly burned hands.

When Dressing - Second Degree Burns

17

Darken with an eyebrow pencil.

  • Short stubble- Shaved off, hair restored.

Singed Hair (when dressing)

18

Gloved and placed at sides.

Badly Burned Hands (When Dressing)

19

A burn resulting in the destruction of tissues; cutaneous and subcutaneous.

Third Degree Burn

20

Deoderize and preserve tissues that remain.

Extreme destruction where viewing is not possible (third degree burns)

21

  1. Deodorize and preserve tissues that remain.
  2. Charred tissue- may be removed.
  3. Seared (roasted) tissue- place gauze upon the area and paint with a liquid sealer.

After Embalming- When Viewing is Possible (Third Degree Burns)

22

Total evacuation (disintegration) of tissue.

  • Cannot restore

Fourth Degree Burns

23

When the margins of the cut may be recognized.

Clean, Linear Cut (Incision)

24

  • Instant bond adhesive (after embalming)
  • Suturing

Closing Clean, Linear Cuts

25

  1. Wipe free of moisture.
  2. Cauderize if necessary with chemical or an electric spatula.
  3. Cement together

Instant Bond Adhesive- Clean, Linear cuts

26

  1. Free margins of scabs.
  2. Use a hidden intradermal stitch

Suturing - Clean, Linear Cuts

27

  1. Remove after embalming.
  2. Treat as a non-linear gash.

If Margins Are Desicated - Clean Linear Cuts

28

Where the margins don't align.

Non-Linear Cuts or Gashes

29

  • Hold the margins in place with temporary sutures.
  • Portions are stitched and tied-off.
  • Dry and seal deep tissue.
  • Permanently suture and fill any gaps with wax.
  • Place a tiny ribbon of wax on the line of the cut and taper on each side.

Treatment of Non-Linear Cuts or Gashes

30

Severence of the head from the body.

Decapitation

31

In decapitation, the head and the trunk are embalmed __________.

Separtely 

32

  1. Tie off loose vessels
  2. Trim/excise torn deep tissues and ragged edges of the stump and neck.
  3. Attach the head to the trunk.

After Embalming- Decapitation

33

  • Use a woodel dowel or metal rod.
  • Two short splints are put in the anterior part of the neck in the deep tissues.
  • Correctly position and align the head.
  • Suture the muscular tissues together.
  • Use cotton and plaster to build deep areas.
  • Suture skin margins and fill the area with wax.

Attachment of The Head to The Trunk

34

  1. Wire or force the lower end into the vertebral column.
  2. Insert the upper end into the foramen magnum.

Use a Wooden Dowel or Metal Rod (Decapitation)

35

When broken bones lacerate or puncture the skin.

Compound Fracture

36

In compound fractures, cases will vary from _______ to ______.

Simple to Complex

37

  • Pry them together
  • Wire them together
  • Bridge mutilated parts
  • Recreate missing parts
  • Recreate surface tissues with cotton packing

To Align Bones - Before Embalming

38

Use a powder incision sealer and permanently suture.

After Embalming- Compound Fracture

39

A wound made by tearing the flesh.

  • May vary from small scratches to deep tears.

Laceration

40

May be masked with wax.

Small Scratches 

41

Fill with an incision sealer, suture, and apply wax.

Deep Lacerations

42

Some embalmers apply wax to the mucous membranes of every case to reduce the chances of dehydration.

Lip Waxing

43

Natural characteristics are hidden.

Disadvantage - Lip Waxing

44

Tissue builder injected into the mucous membranes.

Alternative for correcting slight lip separation.

45

  • Cylinder method
  • Filling and tooling
  • Surfacing each mucous membrane

Methods to Correct Small Lip Separations

46

A small softened roll of correctly colored wax is placed on the teeth, then the mucous membranes are gently pressed against the wax.

Cylinder Method

47

The space between the mucous membranes is filled with red tinted lip wax, which is fanned alternately to each membrane with the spatula creating the line of closure.

Filling And Tooling

48

Applying a thin layer of tinted wax to each mucus membrane starting with the upper one first.

  • Seems to be the less difficult method for most operators.

Surfacing Each Mucous Membrane

49

When caused by extreme dehydration.

  • Cross Stitches are made between the two mucous membranes as deep as possible.
  • The stitches are pulled taut, and new lips are modeled over the present structures.
  • This method will falsify facial proportions if the person has buck teeth.

To Correct Large Lip Separations

50

Treat chemically with a cotton swab and:

  • Creosote (1%)
  • Phenol (1%)
  • Half and half mixture of methyl alcohol and acetic acid.

Mold

51

  1. Cream the face.
  2. During embalming, plug the hole with cotton when the leakage is clear fluid.
  3. After embalming remove cotton.
  4. Replace with liquid sealer coated cotton.
  5. Cavity fluid may be necessary.
  6. External pressure may also be necessary.

Pistol and RIfle Wounds

52

  1. Remove scabs and cream skin.
  2. Excise dehydrated tissue.
  3. Plug hole with cotton during embalming.
  4. Later replace with liquid sealer and wax.
  5. Hair may be attached to wax.

Punctures (Small Clean Puncture)

53

Separation of the epidermis from the derma.

Skin Slip (Desquamation)

54

The cause of skin slip (desquamation)

Putrefaction

55

  • Inject the unpreserved area with embalming chemical.
  • Remove the freed tissue.
  • Place a cavity fluid compress on the raw tissue for
    • Surface preservation
    • Dryness
  • If necessary, sear with phenol
  • Paint with liquid sealer
  • Derma exposed to air turns hard and brown.
    • Restore like an abrasion

Treating Skin Slip (Desquamation)

56

Apply phenol or cavity fluid.

Scabs

57

  • Pry loose with the edge of a scapel
  • May be obstinate scabs

Scab Removal

58

  1. Local application of wood vinegar (glacial acetic acid) or cuticle remover.
  2. Cut down with a scalpel if necessary.

Obstinate Scabs

59

  • Hold borders of an incision together.
  • Gather and turn under excess tissues.
  • Hold flaps of skin in position during embalming.
  • Correct distortion from sagging muscles.
  • Hold the margin of a deep wound in a fixed position.
  • Form a mesh to anchor wax
  • Anchor deep filler.
  • Circle and hold the margin of a hole.
  • Serve as an armature.
  • Attach a hair-switch

Purpose of special sutures for exposed areas.

60

  • Linen Thread (thin)
  • Silk Thread
  • Nylon Thread

Materials Used For Restorative Sutures

61

Should be strong but thin, and used in a single length.

Thread

62

  1. Temporary (Interrupted) Suture
  2. Intrademal Suture
  3. Worm Suture
  4. Basket-Weave Suture
  5. Purse-string Suture

Types of Sutures

63

Individual stitches which are knotted and cut.

Temporary (Interrupted) Sutures

64

Used to hold the margins of clean cuts together.

  • Use a non-cutting edge needle.
  • The needle is entered only in the tough derma within the margins.
  • Two types: Single and Double

Intradermal Suture

65

One needle and one thread.

Single Intradermal Suture

66

Used two needles and one thread in a pattern similar to that of lacing a shoe.

Double Intradermal Suture

67

Used to gather in and turn under excess skin tissues.

  • Made after embalming with a cutting edge needle.

Worm Suture

68

The suture for a deep wound or excision made after embalming to:

  • Maintain the position of the margins.
  • Provide an anchor for the wax.

Basket Weave Suture

69

Made before or after embalming to hold the margins of small holes in position.

Purse-String Suture

70

  • Aspiration- during embalming (danger of infection)
  • After embalming- Hypodermically inject and cavity fluid compress.
  • Excuse necrotic tissue and rebuild with wax.

Tumors With Pus

71

  • Skin dissected back and the tumor is excised.
  • Hardening compound may be inserted.

Hard Tumors

72

  • Carefully puncture before embalming.
  • Chemical disinfectant 
  • After embalming, trim or sand hardened margins and apply a cavity fluid compress.
  • Paint with a liquid sealer and wax.

Pustules on The Face