Chapter 1 Restorative Art and Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Restorative Art and Science Deck (61):
1

  • Important for the value, meaning and significance of a family's funeral experience.
  • Viewing the deceased is valueable in helping the grieving family adjust to their loss.
    • Help people understand and confront the reality of loss.

Value of Restorative Art

2

A controversy that has been going on since the latter half of the 20th century and still has not reached a consensus among funeral directors and embalmers.

  • If a funeral director charges too much, a family may choose not to have a viewing because it is too expensive.
  • Some believe whatever happens with the family's buying decisions happens.
  • Many will do the restorative treatments necessary- regardless of the time involved- for no additional compensation.

Charging for Restorative Art

3

  • How much is your time worth?
  • How much of your time do you want to donate as an act of charity?
  • Most funeral directors make these decisions based on their financial advisors, their staff, and their hearts.

Deciding What to Charge

4

Religious beliefs required that in order to proceed to the hereafter, the body must remain intact.

  • No other culture has practiced the complicated embalming procedures like this culture.

Egyptians

5

The art of building or creating parts pf the body which had been destroyed by accident, disease, decomposition, or discoloration, and making the body perfectly natural and lifelike.

Demi-Surgery (Derma-surgery)

6

In 1912, this was known as demi-surgery.

Restorative Art

7

Saw continued advancement in restorative art research and development.

  • New and improved techniques, products, and instrumentation.
    • Developed, tested, and marketed by professional testers and educators.

The 20th Century

8

  • Researched techniques
  • Developed special waxes and cosmetics
  • Educated undertakers though classes
  • Published articles
  • Schools started teaching restorative art
  • Known as the founder of restorative art

Joseph Crandall (J. Crandall, J.E. Crandall)

9

The care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color.

Restorative Art

10

Influenced by:

  • The structure of bones
  • Muscles
  • Connective Tissues
  • Skin

The Form of The Human Head

11

Influenced by:

  • Genetics
  • Aging
  • Environmental Factors
  • Nutrition
  • Disease
  • Pathological Conditions

The elements of the Form of The Human Head

12

The study of the structures and surface markings of the face and features.

Physiognomy

13

The study of humans as biological species with interest in evolution and modern human variation.

Physical Anthropology

14

The word we use in restorative art to refer to the ear.

 

Pinna

15

An orderly classification of plants or animals by their presumed natural relationships.

Taxonomy

16

  • Hardwood

Deciduous

17

  • Softwood
  • Bear cones
  • Have needles instead of leaves

Coniferous

18

Another word for shape.

Morphology

19

Refers to the different shapes that the face, cranium, and facial features assume.

Craniofacial Morphology

20

  • Two of the most important influences on human form and behavior.
  • Both have changed over many years.

Environment and Nutrition

21

Suggests that the continents were attached to one another early in the Earth's history. The continents broke apart and moved into their current positions.

Theory of Continental Drift

22

  • Include the descendents of Europe, which have migrated throughout:
    • North America
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
    • North America
    • Middle East
    • Western Asia
    • May include people of the Indian subcontinent

European (White)

23

  • Northern Asia
  • Central Asia
  • Eastern Asia
  • Indonesia
  • May include American Indians

Asiatic (Yellow)

24

  • Distributed in modern local races of Saharan Africa and persons of African descent in the Western Hemisphere.
  • The darkness of one's skin color is not an indicator of genetic relationship to the African race, because racial distinction is based on many more classifications than skin color.

African (Black)

25

  • Long head length
  • Vertical forehead
  • Little or no presence of supraorbital development

Morphology of the Skull: European

26

  • Shorter skull lengths
  • Vertical foreheads
  • No supraorbital margins

Morphology of the skull: Asiatic

27

  • Long skull length
  • Vertical sloping of the forehead
  • Greater supraorbital development

Morphology of the skull: African

28

  • Long and narrow

Face shape: European

29

  • Thick layer of fat that covers the cheekbones
  • Wide face
  • Typically squared jaw
  • Round and flat appearance

Face shape: Asiatic

30

  • Narrower face than Asiatic, not as long and narrow as the European
  • Tend of have a projection of the jaws causing a gentle sloping of the face from the hairline to the chin with the chin protruding when viewed in profile.

Face Shape: African

31

  • Narrow and long
  • High root and bridge
  • Straight
  • Concave or convex in profile
  • Thin medium tip and fleshy wings, which are thin and compressed.

Nose: European (Leptorrhine)

32

  • Intermediate
  • Very low root and bridge
  • Medium width and concave in profile
  • Tip and wings are medium thickness, wings are flared rather than compressed.

Nose: Asiatic (Mesorrhine)

33

  • Wide
  • Low and broad at the root and bridge
  • Distinctive depression at the root.
  • Tip is thick, wings are thick and flared
  • Profile is straight or concave.
  • Many variations occur

Nose: African (Platyrrhine)

34

  • Horizontal eye closure
  • Eyes slope in the direction in which the inner canthus is superior to the outer canthus (if sloping occurs at all).
  • Thin to medium non-elevated lips
  • Ear is moderate in length with large, free lobe and flat helix.

Eyes, Lips, Ears: European

35

  • Sloping eyes (many lack this feature)
  • Eyes outer canthus is superior to the inner canthus
  • Lips are medium and non-elevated
  • Ear is long and narrow with large, free lobes, and an unrolled outer rim (helix)

Eyes, Lips, Ears: Asiatic

36

  • Eyes are greatly similar to the European race.
  • Lips are thicker, elevated
  • Ears are short and wide with small, attached lobes and deeply rolled outer rim.

Eyes, lips, Ears: African

37

Determined by the amount of melanin, carotene, and blood present.

Skin Color

38

Cells within the derma that produce melanin.

Melanocytes

39

The top layer of the skin.

Stratum Corneum

40

  • Stratum corneum is more compact, therefore has greater permeability.
  • Approximately 40-60% more sebaceous glands.
  • White powder cosmetics can result in ashen skin (xeroxes)
  • Orange-tinted or yellow-tinted cosmetic powders preferred for people with black, bronze, red, or yellow complexions.

Darker Skins (African and Asiatic)

41

Towards the head.

Superior

42

Towards the feet, lower in position.

Inferior

43

Towards the front.

Anterior (Ventral)

44

Towards the rear or caudal end.

Posterior (Dorsal)

45

Towards the midline.

Medial

46

Towards the side, away from the midline.

Lateral

47

A part extending beyond the level of its surroundings.

Projection

48

The withdrawal of a part from its normal position.

Recession

49

A hallow or concave region.

Depression

50

The state or condition of being thrust forward or projecting.

Protrusion

51

Exhibiting a depressed or hallow surface, a concavity.

Concave

52

Curved evenly; resembling a segment of the outer ridge of a sphere.

Convex

53

Slope; deviation from the horizontal or vertical.

Inclination

54

Correspondence in size, shape, and relative position of parts that are on opposite sides of the face.

Symmetry

55

Lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion.

Asymmetry

56

Two sides.

Bilateral

57

Disimilarities existing in the two sides of an object.

Bilateral Differences

58

A lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions. If the division is into two equal halves, it is called median or mid-sagittal.

Median Plane

59

Divides the body into superior and inferior sections.

Horizontal (Transverse)

60

Divides the body into anterior and posterior sections.

Frontal (Coronal)

61