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1

The care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color.

  • This term was first used August 1927, during the Minnesota 39th state convention in St. Paul.

Restorative Art

2

The external shape of a surface structure which involves 3 dimensions.

  • Length
  • Width
  • Projection (most difficult)

Form

3

Those rays of light reflected by the surface.

Color

4

  1. A comforting psychological effect on the family and friends, when viewing the deceased in a natural, unmarked condition.
  2. For public relations in the condition of the deceased, when viewed can add to the reputation of a mortuary (the opposite is also possible!!).

Incentives For Achieving Proficiency

5

  1. The roots of restorative art stem from the embalming techniques of the ancient Egyptians.
  2. In the united states, the introduction of embalming was a major factor in the need for and development of restorative art.

History of Restorative Art

6

  • Dr. Thomas Holmes developed a technique of embalming whereby those killed in the Civil War were able to be embalmed and sent home for burial.
  • As advances in embalming were made, the rush or need to dispose of the deceased "quickly" was eliminated.
  • Early embalmers with little or no skills, instructions, or cosmetics experimented, so that mutilated cases could be restored for viewing.

Introduction of Embalming Being a Major Factor For Restorative Art

7

The "Father of Modern Embalming."

Dr. Thomas Holmes

8

  • The end of the 19th century was the early development of what would eventually be referred to in later years as "restorative art" in Canada and the United States.
  • The "official" beginning of restorative art in the United States came in 1912, when it was first known as:
    • Demi-surgery and
    • Derma-surgery
  • The founder or "father" of restorative art in the United States was Joel E. Crandall.
  • Restorative Art is used in many cases, such as trauma, disfigurment, mutilation, post mortem tissue changes, etc., to create a suitible memory-picture of the deceased.

Extent of Restorative Art Treatment at The Turn of The Century

9

The first articles about restorative art appeared in this magazine.

April 19, 1912 Issue of "The Sunnyside"

10

The founder or "father" of Restorative Art in the United States.

Joel E. Crandall (ABFSE)

(J.E. Crandall, J. Crandall, Joseph Crandall)

11

  • Born Sept. 16, 1978 in Whitesville N.Y. to Mr. Norris and Caroline Andrews.
  • Treated Colonel Jacob Aster (Titanic 1912). His body was taken to Halfax Nova Scotia then sent to N.Y. for burial. He was asked to treat him by undertaker because Aster's face was discolored. He was viewed at the Aster estate.
  • Taught one math class to 25 students (max.)
  • Employed by both Frank E. Campbell and Stephen Merritt Undertaking establishment
  • The National Casket Co. performed his work.
  • To perform his work, he required:
    • Photograph
    • Firmly embalmed tissue
    • Time
  • In the fall of 1912, he lectured on demi-surgery at the New York State Embalming Convention.
  • In 1913 he purchased the Clerihew Undertaking Co. 122 Broadway, Paterson, N.J. and operated this F.H. until he died July 19th, 1942.

Fun Facts about Joseph Crandall

12

  • Plastic Surgery
  • Plaster of Paris
  • Sculpters Clay and Window Putty
  • Cotton and Collodion
  • Yellow Soap
  • Melted Parafin

Experiments of talented embalmers with unsatisfactory results.

13

  • Relied on the healing process.
  • Could not hide the line of incision.
  • Tissue would dehydrate.

Plastic Surgery

14

  • Would not color properly.
  • Difficult to mold.
  • Plaster dries and pulls moisture from surrounding tissues.
  • This is an exothermic reaction- when mixed with water heat is generated.

Plaster of Paris

15

  • Too dark and oily.
  • Difficult to hide with coloring material.

Sculpters Clay and Window Putty

16

  • Would dry out and shrink

Cotton and Collodion

17

  • Melted and applied.
  • Difficult to mold.
    • Tried white with this and water colors.

Yellow Soap

18

Similar problems to yellow soap.

Melted Parafin

19

  • Sent representatives out to train "undertakers" in the use of their company's fluids.
  • Reported back to their employers about the problems of restoration.
  • Manufacturers researched and developed products to be used.
  • Restorative waxes and cosmetics were available by the mid 1920's.
  • Persons trained in restorative procedures lectured and demonstrated the use of these products.

Cooperation of mortuary suppliers

20

Available by the mid 1920's

Restorative Waxes & Cosmetics

21

Since the late 1920's (as relating to practitioners and training institutions).

  1. Schools have formed. Today they must pass accreditation by the ASFSE every 7 years. Self-study and site visit by ABFSE
  2. Licensure is required for morticians (State Board)
  3. Colleges and universities have developed basic course content
    1. ABFSE outline serves as a guide suggesting testable material.
  4. National Board Exam

Modern Restorative Art Training

22

Credited and conducted by the international conference of funeral service education (ICFSE). Also known more simply as "The Conference."

National Board Exam

23

American Board of Funeral Service Education

ABFSE

24

  • Modern
  • Egyptian

Application of Restorative Art (types)

25

In most cases, it is limited to the exposed parts of the deceased.

  • The face and hands - This is what the viewers see.

Modern

26

Extended their practices upon the entire remains.

  • Replaced missing fingernails
  • Bowed legs (broken, reset and splinted).
  • Damaged eyes replaced (colored stones, small onions).
  • Non-viewed scars and wounds were addressed.
  • Did this due to the circle of necessity.

Egyptian

27

The belief that the soul will return to the body after 3,000 years.

Circle of Necessity

28

  1. Average cases
  2. Others cases where visible parts by me distorted.

Types of cases requiring restoration

29

  • Corrective posing of the features.
  • Cosmetic application.

Average case

30

  • Injury/trauma
  • Disease
  • Postmortem tissue changes.

Other cases where visible parts may be distorted or destroyed.

31

  1. Minor Restorations
  2. Major Restorations

Classification of restorations

32

Those requiring the minimum effort, skill or time to complete.

Minor Restorations

33

  • Correcting a misaligned fracture
  • Hypodermic tissue building
  • Reduction of a swelling
  • Subtissue surgery (mouth or eyes)
  • Waxing (lips, abrasions, sutures, razor burns)
  • Suturing clean cuts
  • Small hair replacements (eyebrows, eyelash, temporal hair)
  • Bleaching and concealing minor discolorations
  • Removal and restoration of fever sores (scabs)

Examples of Minor Restorations

34

Those which:

  • Require a long period of time.
  • Are extensive
  • Require technical skill

Major Restorations

35

  • Restoration of a full head of hair (manual restoration, not a wig).
  • Subtissue surgery of a swollen neck.
  • Problems with buck teeth.
  • Deep wound preparation (after extensive tissue removal).
  • Care of deep lacerations.
  • Multiple fractures
  • 3rd degree and 4th degree burns.
  • Skin slip
  • Dismemberment or loss of a part.

Major Restorations: Examples that require a long period of time and are extensive.

36

  • Artifically construct a distorted portion of the face or cranium.
  • Wax surfacing over a large wound.
  • Modeling a facial feature.
  • Masking a completely discolored face or large post-mortem stain.
  • Matching wax with complexion.

Major Restoration: Examples that require technical skill

37

  1. Should be secured form someone in authority (PRD).
  2. Written permission.
  3. Secure permission for both embalming and restorative art.
  4. Why secure permission? Incisions and excisions necessary to a major restoration can be legally described as mutilations.

Permission to undertake a major restoration

38

Primary right of disposition.

PRD

39

Those incurred in the preparation of the deceased.

  • Swelling
  • Leakage
  • Tissue Discoloration

Restorations for which permission is not sought.

40

  1. Moles, warts, scars, birthmarks, etc.
  2. Eyeglasses - Always/Never wore
  3. False Teeth- Always/Never wore
  4. Mustache, facial hair.

Distinguishing Characteristics Not to be Altered or Concealed

41

  1. Pre-embalming treatments (Performed before embalming).
  2. Embalming treatments (Performed during embalming).
  3. Post-embalming treatments (performed during embalming)

Time-table of Treatments

42

  • Corrective positing of the features- eyes, mouth.
  • Sutures to hold muscles or flaps of skin in position (temporary suture).
  • Resetting a dislocated fracture.
  • Puncture of blisters.
  • Correction of minor buck-teeth problems.

Pre-embalming Treatments

43

  • Internal tissue building or coloring.
  • Limiting a swelling
  • Maintaining feature corrections.

Embalming Treatments

44

  • Removal of scabs
  • Excision of diseased or mutilated tissues. (If causing an extra distortion of the face, remove before embalming).
  • Suturing of incisions, lacerations, excisions.
  • Reduction of swelling.
  • Hypodermic tissue building.

Post-Embalming Treatments

45

The study of the structures and surface markings of the face and features.

  • Deals only with the surface.

Physiognomy

46

Lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion.

  • Refers to differences of paired features.

Asymmetry

47

The most common characteristics of each feature: typical, common, average.

  • Refers to the most common characteristic of each part of a feature (or face).
  • Ex: when referring to a photograph during a restoration, an understanding of the norm will allow the restorative artist to recognize any "deviations" and recreate them on the deceased.

Norm

48

The position of the body standing erect, with the palms of the hands turned outward (forward).

Anatomical Position

49

Front or forward part.

Anterior (Ventral)

50

Behind or toward the rear.

Posterior (Dorsal)

51

Above or higher (toward the vertex of the skull).

Superior

52

Below or lower (toward the feet).

Inferior

53

Refers to a position closer to the median plane (midline).

Medial

54

Farther away from the median plane, to the side.

Lateral

55

The anterior view of the face or features.

Frontal

56

The human head or feature represented in a side view; the outline silhouette.

Profile

57

Relating to or having two sides.

Bilateral

58

  1. Sagittal
  2. Mid-sagittal (median plane)
  3. Frontal or coronal

Vertical Planes (Upright)

59

Divides the body into right and left portions. (Does not have to be equal).

Sagittal

60

At the midline dividing the body into right and left halves.

Mid-Sagittal (Medial plane)

61

Dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.

Frontal (Coronal) Plane

62

  1. Transverse

Horizontal Plane (Horizon)

63

Dividing the body into upper and lower portions.

Transverse Plane

64

Slanting or inclined plane.

Oblique Plane

65

A surface exhibiting a minimum curvature (convexity) but differing in direction from the adjacent surfaces.

Surface Plane (fine arts)

66

The act of receding (moving backward) to a more distant point.

Recession

67

A sunken (concave) area or part.

Depression

68

A part that juts out.

Projection

69

  • Conspicuous in position or importance.
  • A protrusion 

Prominence

70

Having a depressed or hallow surface.

Concave

71

Having a rounded or somewhat elevated surface.

Convex

72

Deviation from the vertical or horizontal; slope.

Inclination or Oblique

73

Top of a curve where the direction changes. (Does not have to be symmetrical).

Crest of a Curvature

74

Lack of symmetry or proportion.

Asymmetry

75

Similarity of form on either side of a dividing plane.

Symmetry

76

At right angles to a given plane or line. (90 degrees)

Perpendicular

77

Adjoining or next to.

Adjacent

78

Less than 90 degrees.

Acute

79

Greater than 90 degrees and ess than 180 degrees.

Obtuse