The care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color.
- This term was first used August 1927, during the Minnesota 39th state convention in St. Paul.
The external shape of a surface structure which involves 3 dimensions.
- Projection (most difficult)
Those rays of light reflected by the surface.
- A comforting psychological effect on the family and friends, when viewing the deceased in a natural, unmarked condition.
- For public relations in the condition of the deceased, when viewed can add to the reputation of a mortuary (the opposite is also possible!!).
Incentives For Achieving Proficiency
- The roots of restorative art stem from the embalming techniques of the ancient Egyptians.
- In the united states, the introduction of embalming was a major factor in the need for and development of restorative art.
History of Restorative Art
- Dr. Thomas Holmes developed a technique of embalming whereby those killed in the Civil War were able to be embalmed and sent home for burial.
- As advances in embalming were made, the rush or need to dispose of the deceased "quickly" was eliminated.
- Early embalmers with little or no skills, instructions, or cosmetics experimented, so that mutilated cases could be restored for viewing.
Introduction of Embalming Being a Major Factor For Restorative Art
The "Father of Modern Embalming."
Dr. Thomas Holmes
- The end of the 19th century was the early development of what would eventually be referred to in later years as "restorative art" in Canada and the United States.
- The "official" beginning of restorative art in the United States came in 1912, when it was first known as:
- Demi-surgery and
- The founder or "father" of restorative art in the United States was Joel E. Crandall.
- Restorative Art is used in many cases, such as trauma, disfigurment, mutilation, post mortem tissue changes, etc., to create a suitible memory-picture of the deceased.
- Demi-surgery and
Extent of Restorative Art Treatment at The Turn of The Century
The first articles about restorative art appeared in this magazine.
April 19, 1912 Issue of "The Sunnyside"
The founder or "father" of Restorative Art in the United States.
Joel E. Crandall (ABFSE)
(J.E. Crandall, J. Crandall, Joseph Crandall)
- Born Sept. 16, 1978 in Whitesville N.Y. to Mr. Norris and Caroline Andrews.
- Treated Colonel Jacob Aster (Titanic 1912). His body was taken to Halfax Nova Scotia then sent to N.Y. for burial. He was asked to treat him by undertaker because Aster's face was discolored. He was viewed at the Aster estate.
- Taught one math class to 25 students (max.)
- Employed by both Frank E. Campbell and Stephen Merritt Undertaking establishment
- The National Casket Co. performed his work.
- To perform his work, he required:
- Firmly embalmed tissue
- In the fall of 1912, he lectured on demi-surgery at the New York State Embalming Convention.
- In 1913 he purchased the Clerihew Undertaking Co. 122 Broadway, Paterson, N.J. and operated this F.H. until he died July 19th, 1942.
- Firmly embalmed tissue
Fun Facts about Joseph Crandall
- Plastic Surgery
- Plaster of Paris
- Sculpters Clay and Window Putty
- Cotton and Collodion
- Yellow Soap
- Melted Parafin
Experiments of talented embalmers with unsatisfactory results.
- Relied on the healing process.
- Could not hide the line of incision.
- Tissue would dehydrate.
- Would not color properly.
- Difficult to mold.
- Plaster dries and pulls moisture from surrounding tissues.
- This is an exothermic reaction- when mixed with water heat is generated.
Plaster of Paris
- Too dark and oily.
- Difficult to hide with coloring material.
Sculpters Clay and Window Putty
- Would dry out and shrink
Cotton and Collodion
- Melted and applied.
- Difficult to mold.
- Tried white with this and water colors.
- Tried white with this and water colors.
Similar problems to yellow soap.
- Sent representatives out to train "undertakers" in the use of their company's fluids.
- Reported back to their employers about the problems of restoration.
- Manufacturers researched and developed products to be used.
- Restorative waxes and cosmetics were available by the mid 1920's.
- Persons trained in restorative procedures lectured and demonstrated the use of these products.
Cooperation of mortuary suppliers
Available by the mid 1920's
Restorative Waxes & Cosmetics
Since the late 1920's (as relating to practitioners and training institutions).
- Schools have formed. Today they must pass accreditation by the ASFSE every 7 years. Self-study and site visit by ABFSE
- Licensure is required for morticians (State Board)
- Colleges and universities have developed basic course content
- ABFSE outline serves as a guide suggesting testable material.
- National Board Exam
Modern Restorative Art Training
Credited and conducted by the international conference of funeral service education (ICFSE). Also known more simply as "The Conference."
National Board Exam
American Board of Funeral Service Education
Application of Restorative Art (types)
In most cases, it is limited to the exposed parts of the deceased.
- The face and hands - This is what the viewers see.
Extended their practices upon the entire remains.
- Replaced missing fingernails
- Bowed legs (broken, reset and splinted).
- Damaged eyes replaced (colored stones, small onions).
- Non-viewed scars and wounds were addressed.
- Did this due to the circle of necessity.
The belief that the soul will return to the body after 3,000 years.
Circle of Necessity
- Average cases
- Others cases where visible parts by me distorted.
Types of cases requiring restoration
- Corrective posing of the features.
- Cosmetic application.
- Postmortem tissue changes.
Other cases where visible parts may be distorted or destroyed.
- Minor Restorations
- Major Restorations
Classification of restorations
Those requiring the minimum effort, skill or time to complete.
- Correcting a misaligned fracture
- Hypodermic tissue building
- Reduction of a swelling
- Subtissue surgery (mouth or eyes)
- Waxing (lips, abrasions, sutures, razor burns)
- Suturing clean cuts
- Small hair replacements (eyebrows, eyelash, temporal hair)
- Bleaching and concealing minor discolorations
- Removal and restoration of fever sores (scabs)
Examples of Minor Restorations
- Require a long period of time.
- Are extensive
- Require technical skill
- Restoration of a full head of hair (manual restoration, not a wig).
- Subtissue surgery of a swollen neck.
- Problems with buck teeth.
- Deep wound preparation (after extensive tissue removal).
- Care of deep lacerations.
- Multiple fractures
- 3rd degree and 4th degree burns.
- Skin slip
- Dismemberment or loss of a part.
Major Restorations: Examples that require a long period of time and are extensive.
- Artifically construct a distorted portion of the face or cranium.
- Wax surfacing over a large wound.
- Modeling a facial feature.
- Masking a completely discolored face or large post-mortem stain.
- Matching wax with complexion.
Major Restoration: Examples that require technical skill
- Should be secured form someone in authority (PRD).
- Written permission.
- Secure permission for both embalming and restorative art.
- Why secure permission? Incisions and excisions necessary to a major restoration can be legally described as mutilations.
Permission to undertake a major restoration
Primary right of disposition.
Those incurred in the preparation of the deceased.
- Tissue Discoloration
Restorations for which permission is not sought.
- Moles, warts, scars, birthmarks, etc.
- Eyeglasses - Always/Never wore
- False Teeth- Always/Never wore
- Mustache, facial hair.
Distinguishing Characteristics Not to be Altered or Concealed
- Pre-embalming treatments (Performed before embalming).
- Embalming treatments (Performed during embalming).
- Post-embalming treatments (performed during embalming)
Time-table of Treatments
- Corrective positing of the features- eyes, mouth.
- Sutures to hold muscles or flaps of skin in position (temporary suture).
- Resetting a dislocated fracture.
- Puncture of blisters.
- Correction of minor buck-teeth problems.
- Internal tissue building or coloring.
- Limiting a swelling
- Maintaining feature corrections.
- Removal of scabs
- Excision of diseased or mutilated tissues. (If causing an extra distortion of the face, remove before embalming).
- Suturing of incisions, lacerations, excisions.
- Reduction of swelling.
- Hypodermic tissue building.
The study of the structures and surface markings of the face and features.
- Deals only with the surface.
Lack of symmetry, balance, or proportion.
- Refers to differences of paired features.
The most common characteristics of each feature: typical, common, average.
- Refers to the most common characteristic of each part of a feature (or face).
- Ex: when referring to a photograph during a restoration, an understanding of the norm will allow the restorative artist to recognize any "deviations" and recreate them on the deceased.
The position of the body standing erect, with the palms of the hands turned outward (forward).
Front or forward part.
Behind or toward the rear.
Above or higher (toward the vertex of the skull).
Below or lower (toward the feet).
Refers to a position closer to the median plane (midline).
Farther away from the median plane, to the side.
The anterior view of the face or features.
The human head or feature represented in a side view; the outline silhouette.
Relating to or having two sides.
- Mid-sagittal (median plane)
- Frontal or coronal
Vertical Planes (Upright)
Divides the body into right and left portions. (Does not have to be equal).
At the midline dividing the body into right and left halves.
Mid-Sagittal (Medial plane)
Dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Horizontal Plane (Horizon)
Dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
Slanting or inclined plane.
A surface exhibiting a minimum curvature (convexity) but differing in direction from the adjacent surfaces.
Surface Plane (fine arts)
The act of receding (moving backward) to a more distant point.
A sunken (concave) area or part.
A part that juts out.
- Conspicuous in position or importance.
- A protrusion
Having a depressed or hallow surface.
Having a rounded or somewhat elevated surface.
Deviation from the vertical or horizontal; slope.
Inclination or Oblique
Top of a curve where the direction changes. (Does not have to be symmetrical).
Crest of a Curvature
Lack of symmetry or proportion.
Similarity of form on either side of a dividing plane.
At right angles to a given plane or line. (90 degrees)
Adjoining or next to.
Less than 90 degrees.
Greater than 90 degrees and ess than 180 degrees.