Flashcards in Psych chapter 3-biological psychology Deck (73):
What are neurons?
Nerve cells specialized for communicating with each other (and glands and muscles)
What is the cell body?
Also called the soma, it is the central region of the neuron, contains the nucleus.
What are dendrites?
Branch like extensions for receiving information from other neurons
What are axons?
Long, tail-like extensions protruding from the cell body.
What is the axon terminal?
Contains synaptic know with NT and vesicles.
Where are synaptic vesicles manufactured?
In the cell body
What are synpases?
Space between neurons, composed of the synaptic cleft where NTs travel
What are the different glial cells?
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells.
What are astrocytes?
Star shaped, increase NT reliability, control blow flow in the brain. Make up the blood brain barrier.
What is the blood brain barrier?
A fatty coating that wraps around capillaries, doesn't let large molecules, highly charged particles and water soluble molecules into the brain. Protect against bacteria.
What are oligodendrocytes?
Produces insulating wrapper around axons called myelin sheath. Promotes new connections among nerve cells and release chemicals to aid in healing.
What are the nodes of Ranvier?
For saltatory conduction. Allow jumping of action potentials, gaps in the myelin.
What is resting potential?
Normal potential of every cell.
What are action potentials?
Abrupt waves of electrical discharge triggered by a change in charge inside the axon. Obey all-or-none law, have to hit threshold. When the action potentials reaches the axon terminal, causes release of NT.
What is the absolute refractory period?
No action potentials can be reinitiated, one way propagation.
What is the relative refractory period?
Potassium leaving cell causes hyperpolarization, need more energy to undergo action potential.
What are graded potentials?
Decremental decay of charge. Generally seen as postsynaptic potential in either EPSP or IPSP. Graded potentials can be summed.
What is an EPSP?
if positive ions enter get EPSP, graded potential to raise chance of reaching threshold.
What is an IPSP?
If negative charges enter, get IPSP.
What is LTP?
Long term potentiation, occurs when graded potentials become larger than it was prior to stimulation. This increases the ability of a neuron to communicate and fire action potentials and is the basis of our memories. Increases the amount of receptors and NTs in a certain synapse.
What are receptor sites?
Sites for binding of NT on postsynaptic side.
What is reuptake?
Synaptic vesicles reabsorb the NT.
What are the different NTs?
Glutamate, GABA, ach, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, anandamide.
What is Glutamate?
Main excitatory NT.
What is Ach?
Muscle contraction and cortical arousal.
What is GABA?
Main inhibitory NT.
What is dopamine?
Motor function and reward.
What is serotonin?
Mood and temperature regulation, agression, sleep-wake cycles
What are endorphins?
What is anadamide?
Pain reduction, increase in appetite.
What is norepinephrine?
Brain arousal and other functions like mood, hunger and sleep
What is an agonist?
Increases receptor site activity.
What is an antagonist?
Decreases receptor site activity.
What is neural plasticity?
Ability of NS to change.
What are the four primary ways in which the network of neurons in the brain change over the course of development?
Growth of dendrites and axons
Synaptogenesis-formation of new synapses
Pruning-consisting of the death of certain neurons and the retraction of axons to remove connections that aren't useful
What are stem cells?
Cell that have the ability to differentiate into any cell type.
What is neurogenesis?
Creation of new neurons in the adult brain.
What is the CNS?
Central nervous system, composed of brain and spinal cord
What is the PNS?
Peripheral nervous system. Divided into the somatic and autonomic. Autonomic comprises motor cortex which innervates skeletal muscle. The somatic is divided into parsympathetic and sympathetic systems. Both act on cardiac, smooth and exocrine and endocrine glands.
What are the divisions of the CNS?
Cerebral cortex, Basal Ganglia, Limbic system, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord.
What are the brain and spinal cord protected by?
What are the cerebral ventricles?
Fluid filled pockets that extend through the brain and spinal cord. CSF runs through these providing nutrients and cushioning us against injury.
What is the CSF?
Cerebrospinal fluid. A clear liquid that serves as the CNS' shock absorber
What is the cerebral cortex?
Part of the cerebrum of forebrain, which is the most highly developed area of the human brain. Gives us our advanced intellectual abilities (thinking, memory, etc,..) The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres. Contains four lobes.
What is the corpus callosum?
Huge band of fibres connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Allows them to communicate.
What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
Frontal lobes, parietal lobes, occipital lobes, temporal lobes.
What are the frontal lobes?
Lies in the forward part of the cerebral cortex. Assist in motor function, language and memory. Contains the motor cortex which lies next to the central sulcus, contains the prefrontal cortex (frontal part of this lobe), contains Broca's area, important for language production.
What is the central sulcus?
Separates the frontal lobe from the rest of the cortex.
What is the parietal lobe?
The upper middle part of the cerebral cortex, behind frontal lobe. Contains somatosensory cortex. Parietal lobe communicates visual and touch information, helps keep track of objects.
What is the temporal lobe?
Prime site of hearing, understanding language and storing memories of past. Separated from rest of cortex by lateral fissure.
Contains auditory cortex and Wernicke's area. Important in understanding speech.
What is the occipital lobe?
Contains the visual cortex, at the back of our brain.
What are cortical hierarchies?
Means that sensory information first goes to primary sensory cortex specific to sense then relayed to association areas which integrates information.
What are the basal ganglia?
Help control movement. After sensory information reach primary and association areas, gets transmitted to basal ganglia to plot course of action. Allow us to perform movements to obtain rewards.
What is the limbic system?
Diverse part of the brain dedicated to emotion. Processes info about our internal states such as blood pressure and such. Plays a role in smell, motivation and memory. Four areas in the limbic system include thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus.
What is the thalamus?
Sensory relay station, the vast majority of sensory info passes here first before travelling to the cortex.
What is the hypothalamus?
Regulates and maintains constant internal body states.
What is the amygdala?
Almond shaped, excitement, fear ,arousal.
What is the hippocampus?
Plays crucial roles in memory.
What is the brain stem?
Contains the midbrain, pons and medulla. Performs basic functions to keep us alive. Serves as relay station between cortex and rest of NS. Midbrain plays role in movement.
What is RAS?
Reticular activating system. Connects to the forebrain and cerebral cortex. Plays a key role in arousal.
What does the hindbrain contain?
Cerebellum, pons and medulla.
What is the cerebellum?
Plays a dominant role in our sense of balance and coordination of motor skills.
What is the pons?
Play role in dream triggering.
What does the medulla do?
Regulates breathing, heartbeat and other vital functions. Damage here can cause brain death.
What is brain death?
Unresponsive to all stimuli.
What is the spinal cord?
Extends from our brain stem and runs down the middle of our backs, conveying information between the brain and the rest of the body.
What are interneurons?
Connect sensory nerves (Afferent) to motor nerves (Efferent).
What are reflexes?
Automatic motor responses to sensory stimuli.
What is the PNS?
Peripheral nervous sytem. Contains two branches, the somatic autonomic nervous system.
What is the somatic nervous system?
Carries messages from the CNS throughout the body controlling voluntary movement.
What is the autonomic nervous system?
Comprises the symapthetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The brain and spinal cord interact with the somatic nervous system to bring about sensation and behaviour. The limbic system interacts with it to regulate emotion and interanl physical states.
What is the sympathetic nervous system?
Active during emotional arousal, especially during crises. Mobilizes the fight or flight response.