Chapter 13: Social Psychology - Key words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Social Psychology - Key words Deck (39):
1

study of how people influence others' behaviour, beliefs and attitudes

Social Psychology

2

theory that we seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others

social comparison theory

3

outbreak of irrational behaviour that is spread by social contagion

mass hysteria

4

process of assigning causes to behaviour

attribution

5

tendency to overestimate the imapct of dispositional influences on other people's behaviour

fundamental attribution error

6

tendency of people to alter their behaviour as a result of group pressure

conformity

7

tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behaviour when they are stripped of their usual identities

deindividuation

8

empahsis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking

groupthink

9

tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members

group polarization

10

group of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause

cult

11

approach to convincing people to change their minds about somehting by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking them

inoculation effect

12

adherence to instructions from those of higher authority

obedience

13

error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do

pluralistic ignorance

14

reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others

diffusion of responsibility

15

phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups

social loafing

16

helping others for unselfish reasons

altruism

17

learning about psychological research can change real-wolrd behaviour for the better

enlightenment effect

18

behaviour intended to harm others, either verbally or physically

aggression

19

form of indirect aggression, prevalent in girls, involving spreading rumours, gossiping, and nonverbal putdowns for the purpose of social manipulation

relational aggression

20

belief that includes an emotional component

attitude

21

personality trait that assesses the extent to which people's behaviour reflects their true feelings and attitudes

self-monitoring

22

unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs

cognitive dissonance

23

theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviours

self-perception theory

24

theory that we don't really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviours appear consisten with our attitudes

impression management theory

25

persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one

foot-in-the-door technique

26

persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we're hoping to have granted

door-in-the-face technique

27

persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price, and then mentions all of the "add-on" costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product

lowball technique

28

drawing negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence

prejudice

29

a belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group

stereotype

30

assumption that behaviours among individual members of a group are due to their internal disposition

ultimate attribution error

31

evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different

adaptive conservatism

32

tendency to favour individuals within our group over those from outside our group

in-group bias

33

tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar

out-group homogeneity

34

negative behaviour toward members of out-groups

discrimination

35

claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes

scapegoat hypothesis

36

claim that our attributions and behaviours are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason

just-world hypothesis

37

unfounded negative belief of which we're aware regarding the characteristics of an out-group

explicit prejudice

38

unfounded negative belief of which we're unaware regarding the characteristics of an out-group

implicit prejudice

39

educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project

jigsaw classroom

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