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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Important concepts Deck (51):
1

Group of people who lived during the same time period.

Cohorts

2

Phenomenon in which an animal such as a goose will follow around the first, large moving object they see

imprinting

3

The ability of a child to understand that someone other than them may know something they do not and, conversely, that they may know something others do not

Theory of mind

4

Human development is a two-way street.
Children's experiences influence their development, but their development also influences their experiences.
What is this phenomenon?

Bidirectional influences

5

What is the major problem of cross-sectional designs?

Doesnt take into account cohort effects

6

Longitudinal designs are able to determine true ________ _______: changes over time within individuals as a consequence of growing older.

development effects

7

What are some reasons that longitudinal designs are not used?

Costly
Time-consuming
Not an experimental design (cannot infer cause and effect)

8

Behaviours such as breaking rules, defying authority figures, and commiting crimes.

Externalizing behaviours

9

Participants dropping out of the study before it is completed.

Attrition

10

What are two myths concerning development?

Infant determinism
Childhood fragility

11

Widespread assum;tion that extremely early experiences - especially in the first three years of life - are almost always more influential than later experiences in shaping us as adults.

infant determinsim (myth)

12

Holds that children are delicate little creatures who are easily damaged.

Chilhood fragility (myth)

13

Genetic endowment

Nature

14

The environments we encounter

nurture

15

What are the three stages of prenatal development?
Provide the weeks of development.

Germinal stage (0-1 and half weeks), embryonic stage (wk 2-8), fetal stage (9th week onward)

16

Zygote begins to divide and form a blastocyst.

Germinal stage

17

Limbs, facial features, major organs begin to take shape.

Embryonic stage

18

Spontaneous miscarriages happen most often during this stage.

Embryonic stage

19

Major organs established, and physical maturation is the major change.

Fetal stage

20

Brain development occurs ___ days after fertilization and continues to develop into _______ and _____ _________.

18
adolescence/early adulthood

21

Occuring from day 18 to the end of month 6 where the development of neurons occurs at a high rate.

Proliferation

22

What are obstacles to normal fetal development?

1) Teratogens
2) Genetic disorders and errors in cell duplication
3) Premature birth

23

What is premature birth?

Birth prior to 36 weeks (gestation)

24

Point at which infants can typically survive on their own.

25 weeks

25

Automatic motor behaviours

reflexes

26

Theories of cognitive development can be of two types (4 technically), these are?

Stage-like or continuous
Domain general or domain specific

27

Sudden spurts of knowledge followed by periods of stability

stage-like

28

gradual, incremental gain of knowledge

continuous

29

Cross-cutting changes in children's cognitive skills that affect most or all areas of cognitive function at once

domain-general

30

Children's cognitive skills develop independently and at different rates across different domains, such as reasoning, language, and counting

domain-specific

31

According to Piaget, cognitive change is marked by _________: maintaining a balance between our experience of the world and our thoughts about it.

equilibration

32

According to Piaget, chidlren use two processes to keep their thinking about the world in tune with their experiences.
What are they?

Assimilation and accomodation

33

All four-legged furry creatures are cats.

Assimilation

34

Process of assimilating and accomodating in tandem ensures a state of harmony between the world and mind of the child.

Equilibration

35

The ability to think about things that are absent from the immediate surroundings, such as remembering previously encoutered objects.

mental representation/object permanence

36

Children in the pre-operational stage:
Time frame?
Stage hampered by?
What do they lack?
What is the major milestone?

2-7
Egocentrism
Lack ability to perform mental operations (cannot pass conservation tasks)
Conservation

37

Children in the Concrete operations stage:
Time frame?
What do they lack?

7-11
Lack ability to perform mental operations in hypothetical situations

38

Children in the sensorimotor stage:
Time frame?
What do they lack?
What is needed to leave this stage?

0-2
object permanence (early)
need to develop mental representation

39

Individuals in the formal operations stage can understand what type of statements?

If-then and either-or

40

What are issues with Piaget's theory?

Theory was stage-like but most development is continuous
Horizontal decalage - difficult to falsify

41

Case in which a child is more advanced in one cognitive domain than in the other

Horizontal decalage

42

Piaget's theory was domain-________ and ________.

domain general and stage-like

43

As a result of Piaget's legacy, psychologists have reconceptualized cognitive development by:
Viewing children as different in ______ rather than ______ from adults
Characterize learning as _____ rather than ______ processes
Exploring general cognitive processes may cut across multiple domains of knowledge

kind, degree
active, passive

44

Piaget emphasized ________ interaction with the world as the primary source of learning; Vygotsky emphasized ________ interaction.

physical
social

45

Modern theories resembling Piaget's in that they emphasize general cognitive abilities and acquired rather than innate knowledge.

General cognitive accounts

46

How do general cognitive accounts differ from Piaget's original theory?

Regard learning as gradual, rather than stage-like

47

Emphasize social context and the way in which caretakers or peers guide children's understanding of the world.

sociocultural accounts

48

Along with Vygotsky, these accounts ahre a focus on the child's interaction with the social world as the primary source of development.

Sociocultural accounts

49

Modular accounts are more similar to who?

Vygotsky

50

Tests children's ability to understand that someone else believes something they know to be wrong.

false-belief task

51

the false-belief task relates most to what?

Theory of mind

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