Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Important concepts Deck (51):
Group of people who lived during the same time period.
Phenomenon in which an animal such as a goose will follow around the first, large moving object they see
The ability of a child to understand that someone other than them may know something they do not and, conversely, that they may know something others do not
Theory of mind
Human development is a two-way street.
Children's experiences influence their development, but their development also influences their experiences.
What is this phenomenon?
What is the major problem of cross-sectional designs?
Doesnt take into account cohort effects
Longitudinal designs are able to determine true ________ _______: changes over time within individuals as a consequence of growing older.
What are some reasons that longitudinal designs are not used?
Not an experimental design (cannot infer cause and effect)
Behaviours such as breaking rules, defying authority figures, and commiting crimes.
Participants dropping out of the study before it is completed.
What are two myths concerning development?
Widespread assum;tion that extremely early experiences - especially in the first three years of life - are almost always more influential than later experiences in shaping us as adults.
infant determinsim (myth)
Holds that children are delicate little creatures who are easily damaged.
Chilhood fragility (myth)
The environments we encounter
What are the three stages of prenatal development?
Provide the weeks of development.
Germinal stage (0-1 and half weeks), embryonic stage (wk 2-8), fetal stage (9th week onward)
Zygote begins to divide and form a blastocyst.
Limbs, facial features, major organs begin to take shape.
Spontaneous miscarriages happen most often during this stage.
Major organs established, and physical maturation is the major change.
Brain development occurs ___ days after fertilization and continues to develop into _______ and _____ _________.
Occuring from day 18 to the end of month 6 where the development of neurons occurs at a high rate.
What are obstacles to normal fetal development?
2) Genetic disorders and errors in cell duplication
3) Premature birth
What is premature birth?
Birth prior to 36 weeks (gestation)
Point at which infants can typically survive on their own.
Automatic motor behaviours
Theories of cognitive development can be of two types (4 technically), these are?
Stage-like or continuous
Domain general or domain specific
Sudden spurts of knowledge followed by periods of stability
gradual, incremental gain of knowledge
Cross-cutting changes in children's cognitive skills that affect most or all areas of cognitive function at once
Children's cognitive skills develop independently and at different rates across different domains, such as reasoning, language, and counting
According to Piaget, cognitive change is marked by _________: maintaining a balance between our experience of the world and our thoughts about it.
According to Piaget, chidlren use two processes to keep their thinking about the world in tune with their experiences.
What are they?
Assimilation and accomodation
All four-legged furry creatures are cats.
Process of assimilating and accomodating in tandem ensures a state of harmony between the world and mind of the child.
The ability to think about things that are absent from the immediate surroundings, such as remembering previously encoutered objects.
mental representation/object permanence
Children in the pre-operational stage:
Stage hampered by?
What do they lack?
What is the major milestone?
Lack ability to perform mental operations (cannot pass conservation tasks)
Children in the Concrete operations stage:
What do they lack?
Lack ability to perform mental operations in hypothetical situations
Children in the sensorimotor stage:
What do they lack?
What is needed to leave this stage?
object permanence (early)
need to develop mental representation
Individuals in the formal operations stage can understand what type of statements?
If-then and either-or
What are issues with Piaget's theory?
Theory was stage-like but most development is continuous
Horizontal decalage - difficult to falsify
Case in which a child is more advanced in one cognitive domain than in the other
Piaget's theory was domain-________ and ________.
domain general and stage-like
As a result of Piaget's legacy, psychologists have reconceptualized cognitive development by:
Viewing children as different in ______ rather than ______ from adults
Characterize learning as _____ rather than ______ processes
Exploring general cognitive processes may cut across multiple domains of knowledge
Piaget emphasized ________ interaction with the world as the primary source of learning; Vygotsky emphasized ________ interaction.
Modern theories resembling Piaget's in that they emphasize general cognitive abilities and acquired rather than innate knowledge.
General cognitive accounts
How do general cognitive accounts differ from Piaget's original theory?
Regard learning as gradual, rather than stage-like
Emphasize social context and the way in which caretakers or peers guide children's understanding of the world.
Along with Vygotsky, these accounts ahre a focus on the child's interaction with the social world as the primary source of development.
Modular accounts are more similar to who?
Tests children's ability to understand that someone else believes something they know to be wrong.