Chapter 10: Human Development - Key Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Human Development - Key Words Deck (50):
1

Study of how behaviour changes over the lifespan

developmental psychology

2

False assumption that because one event occured before another event, it must have caused that event

Post hoc fallacy

3

research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time

cross-sectional design

4

effect observed in a sample of participants that results from individuals in the sampel growing up at the same time

cohort effect

5

research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time

longitudinal design

6

situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they are expressed

gene-environment interaction

7

tendency of individuals with certain genetic predispositions to seek out and create environments that permit the expression of those predispositions

nature-via-nurture

8

activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout development

gene expression

9

period prior to birth

prenatal

10

fertilized egg

zygote

11

ball of identical cells early in pregnancy that haven't yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part

blastocyst

12

second to eight week of prenatal development, during which limbs, facial features, and major orans of the body take form

embryonic stage

13

period of prenatal development from the ninth week until birth after all major organs are establisehd and physical maturation is the primary change

fetal stage

14

environmental factor that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development

teratogen

15

condition resulting from high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure, causing learning disabilities, physical growth retardation, facial malformations, and behavioural disorders

fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

16

bodily motion that occurs as a result of self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles

motor behaviour

17

the transition between childhood and adulthood commonly associated with the teenage years

adolescence

18

the achievement of sexual maturation resulting in the potential to reproduce

puberty

19

a physical feature such as the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes

primary sex characterstic

20

a sex-differentiating characteristics that doesn't relate directly to reproduction, such as breast enlargement in women and deepening voices in men

secondary-sex characteristic

21

start of menstruation

menarche

22

boy's first ejaculation

spermarche

23

the termination of menstruation, marking the end of a woman's reproductive potential

menopause

24

study of how children acquire the ability to learn, think, reason, communicate, and remember

cognitive development

25

Piagetian process of absorbing new experience into current-knowledge structures

assimilation

26

Piagetian process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience

Accomodation

27

Stage in Piaget's theory characterized by a focus on the here and the now without the ability to represent experiences mentally

sensorimotor stage

28

the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view

object permanence

29

stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experience, but not yet perform operations on them

preoperational stage

30

inability to see the world from other's perspectives

egocentrism

31

Piagetian task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in the physical presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same

conservation tasks

32

stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only

concrete operations stage

33

Stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now

formal operations stage

34

Vygotskian learning mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent

scaffolding

35

phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction

zone of proximal development

36

ability to reason about what other people know or believe

theory of mind

37

a fear of strangers developing at 8 or 9 months of age

stranger anxiety

38

basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin

temperament

39

the strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest

attachment

40

positive emotions afforded by touch

contact comfort

41

drawing conclusions on the basis of only a single measure

mono-operation bias

42

environment that provides children with basic needs for affection and discipline

average expectable environment

43

ability to inhibit an impulse to act

self-control

44

individual's sense of being male or female

gender identity

45

a set of behaviours that tend to be associated with being male or female

gender role

46

our sense of who we are, and our life goals and priorities

identity

47

dilemna concerning an individuals relations to other people

psychosocial crisis

48

period of life between the ages of 18 and 25 during which many aspects of emotional development, identity, and personality become solidified

emerging adulthood

49

supposed phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about the aging process and an attempt to regain youth

midlife crisis

50

alleged period of depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from the home

empty-nest syndrome

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