Chapter 13 - Important concepts - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Important concepts - Part 2 Deck (37):
1

A prevalent misconception is that _______ are good predictors of behaviour.

attitudes

2

Attitudes that are highly ________ - i.e. easily come to mind - tend to be strongly predictive of our behaviour

accessible

3

Attitudes tend to predict behaviour when they are what?

firmly held and stable over time

4

Attitudes predict behaviour well for people which exhibit this trait.

Low self-monitors

5

___ self monitoring means attitudes predict behaviour, _____ self monitoring does not.

low, high

6

This heuristic makes us more likely to believe something we have heard many times.

recognition heuristic

7

Advertisement jingles make use what heuristic?

Recognition heuristic

8

adolescents with high levels of __________ are especially likely to become deeply religious adults.

conscientiousness

9

The following example depicts what?
You believe Sandy is a nice person but you learn from a friend that she stole a fellow classmates wallet.

Cognitive dissonance

10

Some scholars contend that it's not dissonance itself that is responsible for attitude changes, but rather threats to our _____-_______.

self-concepts

11

What are other theories that offer an explanation for cognitive dissonance effects?

Self-perception theory
Impression management theory

12

Proposes that we acquire out attitudes by observing our behaviours

self-perception theory

13

Theory that we don't really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviours appear consistent with our attitudes.

impression management theory

14

According to the _____ ______ models of _______, there are two are two alternative pathways to persuading others.

dual process model of persuasion

15

What are the two alternative routes to persuasion according to the duel process model?

Central route
Peripheral route

16

The _______ route leads us to evaluate the merits of persuasive arguments carefully and thoughtfully.

central

17

When using the central route, what part of arguments do we focus on?
When are we most likely to use this route?
The attitudes acquired from this route tend to be what?

Focus on informational content of the arguments

We use this route when we are motivated to evaluate the evidence and have time to do so

Attitudes acquired from this route are firm and strongly held

18

The ________ route leads us to respond to persuasive arguments on the basis of snap judgements.

peripheral

19

When using the peripheral route, what part of the argument do we focus on?
When are we likely to use this route?
Attitudes acquired from this route are of what kind?

focus on surface aspects of argument
use this route when not motivated to weigh information carefully or do not have the time to do so
Weak and short-lived attitudes

20

Advertisements tend to try to use which route of persuasion?

Peripheral

21

We are more likely to accept a persuasive message if ______ or ________ people deliver it.
We are more likely to accept messages when the sources possess high ________.
Messages are especailly persuasive if the messenger seems _____ us.

attractive, famous
credibility
like us

22

What is the implicit egotism effect?

We are more positively disposed toward people, places, or things that resemble us.

23

What is the name-letter effect?

We tend to be more fond of people who share the same first letter of our name.

24

Many persuasion tactics rely on ________ and take the ________ route to persuasion.

heuristics
peripheral

25

We strive to save mental energy by simplifying reality. We are what?

Cognitive misers

26

stereotypes fuel what bias?

Confirmation

27

Some stereotypes are massive overgeneralizations and reflect the presence of _________ _________.

illusory correlation

28

The tendency towards prejudice was adaptive is called what?

Adaptive conservatism

29

What are the two major biases that are associated with our tendencies to forge alliances with people like ourselves?

In-group bias
Out-group homogeneity

30

fMRI scans provide support for in-group bias. How?

More activation in prefrontal cortex for those similar; less activation for those dissimilar

31

Prejudice consists of negative ________ towards others, discrimination consists of negative _______ toward others.

attitudes
behaviours

32

How can discrimination be created?
What is this called?

Create two groups that differ on any characteristic, no matter how trivial - minimal group paradigm

33

People with _______ personality traits tend to have higher levels of prejudice.

authoritarian

34

People with high levels of _______ ________ (view religion as a means to an end) tend to have high levels of prejudice

extrinsic religiosity

35

What is a way to measure implicit prejudices?

Implicit association test (IAT)
- black + positive/negative word
- white + positive/negative word

36

What are some issues with the IAT?

may just measure awareness to stereotypes
Doesnt really match up with extrinsic prejudice

37

What are ways to reduce prejudice?

1 - Group cooperation toward a common goal
2 - Enjoyable contact between groups
3 - Equal status
4 - Group members should disconfirm previously held stereotypes of the other group
5 - Group members should have the potential to become friends

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