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Flashcards in Pulmonary - ENT Deck (235):
1

Term

Definition

2

fluid

partition seperating the right and left nasal cavities

3

paranasal sinuses

air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities

4

pharynx

serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters through the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus.

5

Adenoids

lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity

6

Tonsils

Lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth

7

larynx

location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx (also called the voice box)

8

epiglottis

flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing

9

Trachea

passageway for air to bronchi (wind pipe)

10

Bronchus (pl. bronchi)

one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branching resembles a tree; therefore they are referred to as a bronchail tree.

11

bronchioles

smallest subdivision of the broncial tree

12

alveolus (pl. alveoli)

Air sacs at the end of the brochioles. Oxygen and CO2 are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries

13

Lungs

two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes and the left lung has two.

14

Pleura

Double folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small spave between, called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid.

15

Diaphragm

muscular partition that seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.

16

Mediastinum

space between te lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.

17

Adenoid/o

Adenoids

18

alveol/o

alveolus

19

bronchi/o, bronch/o

bronchus

20

diaphragmat/o, phren/o

diaphragm

21

epiglott/o

epiglottis

22

laryng/o

larynx

23

lob/o

lobe

24

nas/o, rhin/o

nose

25

pharyng/o

pharynx

26

pleur/o

pleura

27

pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o

lung, air

28

pulmon/o

lung

29

sept/o

septum (wall off, fence)

30

sinus/o

sinus

31

thorac/o

thorax (chest)

32

tonsill/o

tonsil

33

atel/o

imperfect, incomplete

34

capn/o

carbon dioxide

35

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

36

muc/o

mucus

37

orth/o

straight

38

ox/i, ox/o

oxygen

39

phon/o

sound, voice

40

py/o

pus

41

somn/o

sleep

42

spir/o

breathe, breathing

43

a-, an-

absence of, without

44

endo-

within

45

eu-

normal, good

46

pan-

all, total

47

poly-

many, much

48

tachy-

fast, rapid

49

-algia

pain

50

-ar, -ary, -eal

pertaining to

51

-cele

hernia or protrusion

52

-centesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)

53

-ectasis

stretching out, dilatation, expansion

54

-emia

blood condition

55

-graphy

process of recording, radiographic

56

-meter

insturment used to measure

57

-metry

measurement

58

-pexy

surgical fixation, suspension

59

-pnea

breathing

60

-rrhagia

rapid flow of blood

61

-scope

insturment used for visual examination

62

-scopic

pertianing to visual examination

63

-scopy

visual examination

64

-spasm

sudden, involuntary muscle contraction

65

-stenosis

constriction or narrowing

66

-stomy

creation of an artifical opening

67

-thorax

chest

68

-tomy

cut into or incision

69

adenoiditis

inflammation of the adenoids

70

alveolitis

inflammation of the alveolus

71

atelectasis

incomplete expansion of the lung or portion of the lung

72

bronchiectasis

dilation of the bronchi

73

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

74

bronchogenic carcinoma

cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus

75

bronchopneumonia

diseased state of the bronchi and lungs (normally caused by infection)

76

diaphragmatocele (di-a-frag-MAT-o-sel)

Hernia of the diaphragm

77

Epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis

78

hemothorax

blood in the chest (pleural space)

79

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

80

laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) *la-ring-go-tra-ke-o-bron-KI-tos*

inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called croup)

81

lobar pneumonia

pertianing to the lobes, diseased state of the lung

82

nasopharyngitis

inflammation of the nose and pharynx

83

pansinusitis

inflammation of the sinus

84

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

85

pleuritis

inflammation of the pleura

86

pneumatocele

hernia of the lung

87

pneumoconiosis

abnormal condition of dust in the lungs

88

pneumonia

diseased state of the lung

89

pneumonitis

inflammation of the lung

90

pneumothorax

air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung

91

pulmonary neoplasm

pertaining to the lung, new growth (tumor)

92

pyothorax

pus in the chest

93

rhinitis

inflammation of the nose

94

rhinomycosis

abnormal condition of fungus in the nose

95

rhinorrhagia

rapid flow of blood from the nose

96

thoracalgia

pain in the chest

97

tonsillitis

inflammation of the tonsils

98

tracheitis

inflammation of the trachea

99

tracheostenosis

narrowing of the trachea

100

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury

101

asthma

respiratory disease chracterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks

102

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

a progressive lung disease that resticts the air flow, which makes breathing difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main compnents of COPD

103

coccidiodomycosis

fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body

104

cor pulmonale

serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema

105

croup

condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx

106

cystic fibrosis

hereditary disorder of exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms

107

deviated septum

one part of the nasal cavity is smalller because of malformation or injury of the nasal cavity

108

emphysema

stretching of the lung tissuecaused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity

109

epistaxis

nosebleed

110

influenza

highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus

111

legionnaire disease

a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacterium legionella pneuophila

112

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absenceof breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure

113

Pertussis

Highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called whooping cough)

114

pleural effusion

fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma

115

pulmonary edema

fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles

116

pulmonary embolism (PE)

matter forgein to the circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal if of sufficient size or number.

117

Tuberculosis

an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs

118

upper respiratory infection (URI)

infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx (commonly called a cold)

119

Adenoidectomy

excision of the adenoids

120

adenotome

surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids

121

bronchoplasty

surgical repair of a bronchus

122

laryngectomy

excision of the larynx

123

laryngoplasty

surgical repair of the larynx

124

laryngostomy

creation of an artifical opening into the larynx

125

laryngotracheotomy

incision of the larynx and trachea

126

lobectomy

excision of a lobe (of the lung)

127

pleuropexy

surgical fixation of the pleura

128

pneumobronchotomy

incision of lung and bronchus

129

pneumonectomy

excision of a lung

130

rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the nose

131

septoplasty

incision into the nasal septum

132

sinusotomy

incision of a sinus

133

thoracocentesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity

134

thoracotomy

incision in the chest cavity

135

tonsillectomy

excision of the tonsils

136

tracheoplasty

surgical repair of the trachea

137

tracheostomy

creation of an artifical opening into the trachea

138

tracheotomy

incision of the trachea

139

bronchoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi

140

bronchoscopy

visual examination of the bronchi

141

endoscope

instrument used for visual examination within

142

endoscopic

pertaining to visual examination within

143

endoscopy

visual examination within

144

laryngoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the larynx

145

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx

146

capnometer

instrument used to measure carbon dioxide

147

oximeter

instrument used to measure oxygen

148

spirometer

instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volume)

149

spriometry

a measurement of breathing (lung volume)

150

polysomnography (PSG)

process of recording many tests during sleep

151

chest computed tomography (CT) scan

computerized images of the chest created in sections sliced from front to back. Performed to diagnose tumors, abscesses, and pleural effusion. Computed tomography is used to visualize other body parts such as the abdomen and the brain.

152

Chest radiograph (CXR)

a radiographic image of the chest performed to evaluate the lungs and the heart (also called a chest x-ray)

153

ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)

a nuclear medicine precedure performed to diagnose a pulmonary embolism and other conditions

154

acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear

a test performed on septum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which cause tuberculosis

155

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases present

156

peak flow meter (PFM)

a portable instrument used to measure how fast air can be pushed out the lung; used to help monitor asthma and adjust medication accordingly

157

pulmonary function test (PFTs)

a group of tests performed to measure breathing and used to determing respiratory function

158

pulse oximetry

a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the finertip

159

auscultation

the act of listening for sounds within the body through a stethoscope.

160

percussion

the act of tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of te part beneath by the sound obtained. The dull sound indicates the presence of fluid in a body space or cavity such as in the pleural space

161

PPD (purified protein derivative) skin test

a test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis.

162

stethoscope

an instrument used to hear internal body sounds; used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurement

163

acapnia

condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)

164

alveolar

pertaining to the alveolus

165

anoxia

condition of the absence (deficiency) of oxygen

166

aphonia

condition of absence of voice

167

apnea

absence of breathing

168

bronchoalveolar

pertaining to the bronchi and alveoli

169

bronchospasm

spasmodic contraction in the bronchi

170

diaphragmatic

pertaining to the diaphragm

171

dysphonia

condition of difficult speaking (voice)

172

dyspnea

difficult breathing

173

endotracheal

pertaining to within the trachea

174

eupnea

normal breathing

175

hypercapnia

condition of excess carbon dioxide (in the blood)

176

hypernea

exessive breathing

177

hypocapnia

condition of deficient carbon dioxide (in the blood)

178

hyponea

deficient breathing

179

hypoxemia

condition of deficient oxygen in the blood

180

hypoxia

condition of deficient oxyen (to the tissue)

181

intrapleural

pertaining to within the pleura (space between the two pleural membranes)

182

laryngeal

pertaining to the larynx

183

laryngospasm

spasmodic contraction of the larynx

184

mucoid

resembling mucus

185

mucous

pertaining to mucus

186

nasopharyngeal

pertaining to the nose and pharynx

187

orthopnea

able to breathe easier in a straight (upright) position

188

phrenalgia

pain in the diaphragm

189

phrenospasm

spasm of the diaphragm

190

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

191

pulmonologist

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the lung

192

pulmnology

study of the lung (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the lung)

193

rhinorrhea

discharge from the nose (as in a cold)

194

tachypnea

rapid breathing

195

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

196

airway

passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed

197

asphyxia

deprivation of oxygen for tissue usel suffocation

198

aspirate

to withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract

199

bronchoconstrictor

agent causing narrowing of the bronchi

200

bronchodilator

agent causing the bronchi to widen

201

cough

sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs

202

hiccup

sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm

203

hyperventilation

ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs

204

hypoventilation

ventilation of the lungs that does not fullfill the body's gas exchange needs

205

mucopurulent

containing both mucus and pus

206

mucus

slimy fluid secreted by the mucous membranes

207

nebulizer

device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment

208

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired during hospitalization

209

paroxysm

periodic, sudden attack

210

patent

open, the opposite of closed or compromised, thus allowing passage of air, as in patent trachea and bronchi

211

sputum

muccous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth

212

ventilator

mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing

213

ABGs

arterial blood gases

214

AFB

acid-fast bacilli

215

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

216

CF

cystic fibrosis

217

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

218

CT

computed tomography

219

CXR

chest radiograph

220

flu

influenza

221

LLL

left lower lobe

222

LTB

Laryngotracheobronchitis

223

LUL

Left Upper Lobe

224

OSA

obstructive sleep disorder

225

PE

pulmonary embolism

226

PFM

peak flow meter

227

PFTs

pulmonary function test

228

PSG

polysomnography

229

RLL

Right Lower Lobe

230

RML

Right Middle Lobe

231

RUL

Right Upper Lobe

232

SOB

shortness of breath

233

TB

tuberculosis

234

URI

Upper respiratory infection

235

VPS

ventilation-perfussion scanning