Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (83):
1

Pituitary Gland

""Master Gland"": Two parts (neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis)

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Pituitary Gland location

Hangs from hypothalmus, protected by turcica

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Posterior pituitary gland

Produces ADH and Oxytocin, releases when neural impulse from hypothalamus

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Anterior pituitary gland

Produces GH, TSH, ACTH, prolactin, FSH, LH, and otherreleasing hormones.

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ADH

""Vasopressin"", maintains BP by reabsorption of water by kidney tubules and vasoconstriction

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Oxytocin

Stimulates contraction of uterus and release of milk

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Hormone

Chemical substance secreted by a gland into the BLOODSTREAM that controls another gland or body system.

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Diuresis

The formation of urine (not peeing), but once it goes to the bladder you can't get urine back.

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Amines

Variations of thyrosine, include thyroxin, epi, and nor-epi

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Proteins

Chains of amino acids, insulin, groth hormone, and calcitonin

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Steroids

Made of cholesterol, cortisol, aoldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone

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Hormones work on this feedback mechanism

Negative feedback mechanism

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What do endocrine glands respond to?

Blood level changes or other hormones present in the blood stream

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Hypothalmus

Releasing hormones for anterior pituitary

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Pineal Gland

Melatonin

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Thymus Gland

Immune hormones, huge when we're born and gets smaller with age

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Pancreas

Insulin and Glucagon

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Ovaries

Estrogen, progesterone, and Inhibin

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Reabsortion

""Put it back in the blood stream""

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Parathyroid Glands

PTH: parathyroid hormone can increase calcium in blood stream. They are found behind the thyroid, pea shaped and can have 3-6 other them.

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Adrenal (suprarenal) Glands

Cortex: Aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones Medulla: Epi and Nor-epi

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Testes

Testosterone, Inhibin

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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal glands

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T3 and T4

Triiodothyronine and Thyroxin: Increase energy production and rate of protein synthesis

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GH

Growth Hormone: Increases mitosis, amino acid transport into cell, protein synthesis, and use of fats for energy

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Thyroid Gland location

Front and sides of trachea, the two lobes are connected by isthmus (bridge across trachea)

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Thyroid Gland

Produces T3, T4, and calcitonin (regulates calcium in calcium when calcium level too high ""calcitone it down"")

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Another name for a tumor

Neoplasm

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Graves Disease

Hyperthyroidism: Abnormal thyroid stimulating mechanism, increased iodide uptake, thyroid metabolism, growth, and secretion of hormone

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Thyrotoxic Crisis (thyroid storm)

worsening of a thyrotoxic state, possible death within 48 hours (no way to stop thyroid from releasing hormone, we can only sedate them)

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The hormone that lowers blood glucose level by enabling cells to take glucose in

Insulin

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The hormone that increases the rate of cell division

Growth Hormone

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Pancreas

Endocrine functions: islets of langerhans have three types of cells; Alpha, Beta, and Delta

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Alpha Cells in Pancreas

Produce Glucagon

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Beta Cells in Pancreas

Produce Insulin

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Delta Cells in Pancreas

Somatostatin

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The two hormones that regulate blood calciumn level

Parathyroid Hormone and calcitonin

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The hormone that intiates egg or sperm production

FSH

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In men, the hormone necessary for maturation of sperm

Testosterone

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In women, the hormone that causes ovulation

LH

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Two hormones that cause the liver to change glycogen to glucose

glucagon and epinephrine

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The hormones that increase protein synthesis and the use of all 3 food types for energy

Thyroxine

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Hypoglycemia

ALOC first sign because brain is most sensitive to lact of glucose, signs of shock and eventual cellular death

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The hormone that slows peristalsis and dilates the bronchioles

Epinephrine

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The hormone that has an anti-inflammatory affect

Cortisol

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The hormone that increases water reabsorption by the kidneys

ADH

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The hormone that increases calcium reabsorption by the kidneys

PTH

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The Hormone that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys

Aldosterone

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In women, two hormones that promote growth of blood vessels in the endometrium

estrogen and progesterone

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In women, the hormone that promotes growth of the corpus luteum

LH

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The hormone that stimulates milk production in the mammory glands

prolactin

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The hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus during labor

oxytocin

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The hormone that increases the use of fats and excess amino acids for energy while sparing glucose for use by the brain

cortisol

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Two hormones that help maintain BP by maintaining normal blood volume

ADH and aldosterone

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Localized hormones that are synthesized from the phospholipids pf cell membranes

prostaglandins

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Glucagon

Does not add sugar, gluconeogenesis: stimulates the body to break down fats/etc to get glucose from other places in the body, works for a short period of time but builds up acid and the patient still needs glucose.

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Glucose cellular uptake WITHOUT insulin

1/10 as effective

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Steroid hormones are believed to exert their effect by stimulating the synthesis of:

Proteins

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The two-messenger mechanism of hormone action describes the action of:

protein hormones

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The hormone produced by the ovaries or testes that inhibits the secretion of FSH

Inhibin

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The hormone that brings about sleep

melatonin

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The hormone that increases excretion of potassium by the kidneys

Aldosterone

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The secretion of insulin in response to fluctuating blood glucose levels is a __________feedback mechanism

Negative feedback mechanism

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Secretion of the hormones of anterior pituitary gland is regulated by:

Hypothalamus

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The stimulus for secretion of glucagon

hypoglycemia

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The functions of epinephrine are very similar to the functions of:

The sympathetic nervous system

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The stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone

low blood sodium level

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Type II DM

Fixed number of insulin receptors get rid of them two ways, demage exceeds supply (get fat or pregnant) or wear out (with age or from excessive consumption = can't keep up with demand)

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DKA Tx

ABCs, intubation, fluid boluses (1-2 liters), cardiac monitoring (hyperkelemia)

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HONK

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic coma- when the body does not kick in gluconeogenesis

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Adrenal Medulla

Catacholomines: Epi and Nor-epi

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Adrenal Cortex

Aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones

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ADH

causes vasoconstriction and water reabsorption (fluid back into blood stream)

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Adrenal glands

on top of kidneys

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In adrenal cotrex

gluco corticoids and _______ corticoids

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Overheating

hyperthyroidism

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Islets of Longehans

In the pancreas, make alpha, beta, and delta cells

78

Infection or autoimmune of pancreas

type I DM

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Kussmal

Hyperglycemia

80

Respiratory depression

hypoglycemia

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Rapid onset

hypoglycemia

82

Glucagon

Is a hormone and also a beta blocker (antidote for beta blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose)

83

15mils of D50

25 grams of sugar