Immune System - Basic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immune System - Basic Deck (68):
1

phagocytosis

the ingestion of invading microorganisms by certain types of white blood cells (phagocytes)

2

macrophages

""big eaters""; white blood cells that destroy invading microbes and help alert other immune cells by secreting interleukin-1 (chemical regulator)

3

eosinophils

white blood cells that position themselves against a parasite's body and discharge destructive enzymes that damage the invader

4

natural killer cells

cells that patrol the body and and attack virus-infected body cells and cancer cells by releasing a chemical that breaks down their target's cell membrane

5

inflammation

injured tissues release chemicals that stimulate mast cells (connective tissue cells specialized to release histamine)

6

histamine

promotes vasodilation which causes redness and swelling

7

B lymphocytes

lymphocytes that produce antibodies; when stimulated, certain daughter cells (plasma cells) secrete large quantities of antibodies in the bloodstream

8

T lymphocytes

regulate the immune response or kill certain types of cells

9

antigens

something that elicits a specific response from a lymphocyte

10

antibodies

an antigen-binding protein associated with B-cells

11

memory cells

long-lived cells that provide future immunity

12

plasma cells

secrete antibodies

13

cytotoxic T cells

destroy foreign cells, infected body cells, or cancerous body cells; attack foreign antigen displayed with MHC-1 (responsible for rejection of tissue and organ transplants)

14

helper T cells

stimulate immune responses (by secreting interleukin-2) from both B cells and killer T cells

15

humoral immunity

involves activation and clonal selection of B cells, resulting in production of secreted antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymph

16

cell-mediated immunity

involves activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells, which directly destroy certain target cells

17

vaccination

injection of weakened or killed microbes to stimulate the development of memory cells

18

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, caused by RNA viruses, destroys helper T cells, helper T cells make more viruses and infect more helper T cells, the immune response shuts down

19

interferon

chemical messenger produced by virus-infected body cells and capable of stimulating resistance in uninfected cells by synthesis of anti-viral enzymes

20

interleukin-1

chemical regulator secreted by macrophages to alert other immune cells

21

interleukin-2

secreted by helper T cells to stimulate immune responses in B cells and killer T cells

22

major histocompatibility complex

responsible for antigen presentation

23

CD4

surface protein present on most helper T cells the binds class II MHC molecules

24

CD8

surface protein present on most cytotoxic T cells that binds a class I MHC molecule to a cytoxic T cell

25

agglutin/o

clumping

26

bas/o

base

27

chrom/o

color

28

coagul/o

clotting

29

cyt/o

cell

30

eosin/o

rosy red

31

erythr/o

red

32

fibrin/o

fibers, fibrous

33

fus/o

pouring

34

granul/o

granules

35

hem/o

blood

36

hemat/o

blood

37

leuk/o

white

38

lymph/o

lymph

39

morph/o

shape

40

neutr/o

neutral

41

phag/o

eat, swallow

42

sanguin/o

blood

43

septic/o

infection

44

thromb/o

clot

45

-apheresis

removal, carry away

46

-crit

separation of

47

-cytosis

more than the normal number of cells

48

-emia

blood condition

49

-globin

protein

50

-penia

abnormal decrease, too few

51

-phil

attracted to

52

-poiesis

formation

53

-stasis

standing still

54

adenoid/o

adenoids

55

axill/o

axilla, underarm

56

immun/o

protection

57

inguin/o

groin region

58

lymph/o

lymph

59

lymphaden/o

lymph node

60

lymphangi/o

lymph vessel

61

nucle/o

nucleus

62

path/o

disease

63

splen/o

spleen

64

thym/o

thymus gland

65

tonsill/o

tonsils

66

tox/o

poison

67

-edema

swelling

68

-globulin

protein