Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (136):
1

kidneys

Two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum. Their function is to remove waste products from the blodd and to aid in maintaining water and electrolyte balance

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nephron

urine-producing microscopic structure. Approximately 1 million nephrons are located in each kidney.

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glomerulus (pl. glomeruli)

cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron. the process of filtering the blood, thereby forming urine, begins here.

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renal pelvis

funnel-shaped reservoir that collects the urine and passes it to the kidney

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hilum

indentation on the medial side of the kindy where the ureter leaves the kidney

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ureters

two slender tubes, approxiamtely 10 to 13 inches long, that receive the urine from the kidneys and carry it to the posterior portion of the bladder

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urinary bladder

muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine. As it fills, the thick, muscular wall becomes thinner, and the organ increases in size.

8

urethra

lowest part of the urinary tract, through which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

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urinary meatus

opening through which the urine passes to the outside

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cysto, vesic/o

bladder, sac

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glomerul/o

glomerulus

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meat/o

meatus (opening)

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nephr/o, ren/o

kidney

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pyel/o

renal pelvis

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ureter/o

ureter

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urethr/o

urethra

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albumin/o

albumin

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azot/o

urea, nitrogen

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blast/o

developing cell, germ cell

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glyc/o, glycos/o

sugar

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hydr/o

water

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lith/o

stone, calculus

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noct/i

night

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olig/o

scanty, few

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son/o

sound

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tom/o

cut, section

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urin/o, ur/o

urine, urinary tract

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-gram

record, radiographic image

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-iasis, -esis

condition

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-lysis

loosening, dissolution, separating

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-megaly

enlargement

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-ptosis

drooping, sagging, prolapse

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-rrhaphy

suturing, repairing

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-tripsy

surgical crushing

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-trophy

nourishment, development

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-uria

urine, urination

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hydronephrosis

abnormal condition of water in the kidney

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nephritis

inflammation of the kidney

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nephroblastoma

kidney tumor containing developing cells

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nephrohypertrophy

excessive development (increase in size) of the kidney

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nephrolithiasis

condition of stones in the kidney

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nephroma

tumor of the kidney

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nephromegaly

enlargement of the kidney

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nephroptosis

drooping kidney

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pyelitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis

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pyelonephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney

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ureteritis

inflammation of the ureter

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ureterocele

protrusion of a ureter (distally into the bladder)

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ureterolithiasis

condition of stones in the ureters

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ureterostenosis

narrowing of the ureter

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urethrocystitis

inflammation of the urethra and the bladder

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polycystic kidney disease

condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged

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renal calculus

stone in the kidney

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renal failure

loss of kidney function resulting in its inability to remove waste products from the body and maintain electrolyte balance

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renal hypertension

elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney disease

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urinary suppression

sudden stoppage of urine formation

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urinary tract infection (UTI)

infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract

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cystectomy

excision of the bladder

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cystolithotomy

incision of the bladder to remove a stone

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cystostomy

creating an artifical opening into the bladder

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cystorrhaphy

suturing the bladder

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cystotomy, vesicotomy

incision of the bladder

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lithotripsy

surgical crushing of a stone

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meatotomy

incision of the meatus (to enlarge it)

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nephrectomy

excision of the kidney

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nephrolithotomy

incision of the kidney to remove a stone

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nephrolithotripsy

surgical crushing of a stone in the kidney

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nephrolysis

separating the kidney (from other body structures)

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nephropexy

surgical fixation of the kidney

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nephrostomy

creation of an artifical opening into the kidney

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pyelolithotomy

incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone

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pyeloplasty

surgical repair of the renal pelvis

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ureterostomy

creation of an artifical opening into the ureter

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ureterectomy

excision of a ureter

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urethroplasty

surgical repair of the urethra

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vesicourethral suspension

suspension pertaining to the bladder and urethra

77

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

a noninvasive treatment for removal of kidney stone or ureteral stone. By using ultrasound and fluoroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point. Repeated firing of the shock waves renders the stone into fragments that pass from the body in the urine.

78

fulguration

destruction of living tissue with an electric spark

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renal transplant

surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a nonfunctioning kidney

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cystogram

radiographic image of the bladder

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cystography

radiographic imaging of the bladder

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intravenous urogram (IVU)

radiographic image of the urinary tract

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nephrogram

radiographic image of the kidney

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nephrography

radiographic imaging of the kidney

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nephrosonography

process of recording the kidney using sound (an ultrasound test)

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nephrotomogram

sectional radiographic image of the kidney

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renogram

(graphic) record of the kidney

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retrograde urogram

radiographic image of the urinary tract

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voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)

radiographic imaging of the bladder and the urethra

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KUB (Kidney, ureter, bladder)

a simple radiographic image of the abdomen. It is often used to view the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to determine size, shape, and location.

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blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

a blood test that measures the amount of urea in the blood; used to determine kidney function. An increased BUN indicates renal dysfunction

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creatinine (cre-AT-i-nin)

a blood test that measures the amount of creatinine in the blood. An elevated amount may indicate impaired kidney function.

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specific gravity (SG)

a test performed on a urine specimen to measure the concentrating or diluting ability of the kidneys

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urinalysis (UA)

multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen.

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albuminuria (al-bu-min-U-re-a)

albumin in the urine (albumin is an important protein in the blood, but when found in the urine, it indicates a kidney problem)

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anuria (an-U-re-a)

absence of urine (failure for kidneys to produce urine

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diuresis (di-u-RE-sis)

condition of urine passing through (increased amount of urine)

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dysuria (dis-U-re-a)

difficult or painful urination

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glycosuria (gli-ko-SU-re-a)

sugar (glucose) in the urine

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hematuria (hem-a-TU-re-a)

blood in the urine

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meatal (me-A-tal)

pertaining to the meatus

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nephrologist (ne-FROL-o-jist)

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the kidney

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nephrology (ne-FROL-o-je)

study of the kidney (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the kidney)

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nocturia (nok-TU-re-a)

night urination

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oliguria (ol-i-GU-re-a)

scanty urine (amount)

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polyuria (pol-e-U-re-a)

much (excessive) urine

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pyuria (pi-U-re-a)

pus in the urine

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urinary (u-rin-ar-e)

pertaining to urine

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urologist (u-ROL-o-jist)

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the urinary tract

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urology

study of the urinary tract

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catheter

flexible, tubelike, device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids

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distended

stretched out (bladder is distended when filled with urine)

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enuresis (en-u-RE-sis)

involuntary urination

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hemodialysis (HD)

procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of an inability of the kidneys to do so.

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incontinence

inability to control bladder and/or bowels

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micturate (MIK-tu-rat)

to urinate or void

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peritoneal dialysis (par-i-to-NE-al di-AL-i-sis)

procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unable to do so.

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stricture (STRIK-chur)

abnormal narrowing, such as a urethral stricture

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urinal

receptacle for urine

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urinary catheterization

passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder to withdraw urine

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urodynamics (u-ro-di-NAM-iks)

pertaining to the force and flow of urine within the urinary tract

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void

to empty or evacuate waster material, especially urine

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ARF

acute renal failure

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BUN

Blood urea nitrogen

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cath

catheterization, catheter

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CRF

chronic renal failure

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ESRD

end-stage renal failure

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ESWL

extracorpeal shock wave lithotripsy

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HD

hemodialysis

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IVP

intravenous pyelogram

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IVU

intravenous urogram

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OAB

overactive bladder

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SG

specific gravity

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UA

urinalysis

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UTI

urinary tract infection

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VCUG

voiding cystourethrogram