Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (103):
1

heart

muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum and between the lungs. The heart consits of two upper chambers the right atrium and left atrium. Two lower chambers right and left ventricles. The left atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins. The left artium receives blood from the lungs. the left venricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. The atrial septum separates the atria and the ventricular septum separates the ventricles.

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atrioventricular valves

consist of the tricuspid and mitral valves. Valves keep blood flowing one direction.

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semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta, respectively

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pericardium

two-layer sac surronding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer

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three layers of the heart

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

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epicardium

covers the heart

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myocardium

middle, thick, muscular layer

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endocardium

inner lining of the heart

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blood vessels

tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body

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arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. all arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells.

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pulmonary artery

in contrast carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the hear to th lungs

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arterioles

smallest arteries

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aorta

largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen

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veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

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venules

smallest vein

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venae cavae

largest veins in the body.

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capillaries

microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules.

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blood

composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes

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plasma

clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume

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erythrocytes

red blood cells that carry oxygen. Erythrocytes develop in bone marrow.

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leukocytes

white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.

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platelets

one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process

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serum

clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed

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lymph

transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph. Lymph contains lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one-way direction to the heart. Lymph is similar to blood plasma.

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lymphatic vessels

similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. The vessels begin as capillaries spread throughout the body then merge into larger tubs that eventually become ducts in the chest. They provide a one-way flow for lymph gathered from the tissues to ducts in the chest, where lymph enters through the veins into the circulatory system.

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lymph nodes

small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue. They may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. The nodes filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood. They also produce lymphocytes.

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spleen

located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm. In adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Blood, rather that lymph, flows through the spleen. Blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen. The spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.

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thymus gland

one of the primary lymphatic organs, it is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs. It plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty. Around puberty the thymus gland atrophies so that most of the gland is connective tissue.

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angi/o

vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)

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aort/o

aorta

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arteri/o

artery

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atri/o

atrium

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cardi/o

heart

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lymph/o

lymph, lymph tissue

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lymphaden/o

lymph node

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myel/o

bone marrow

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phleb/o, ven/o

vein

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plasm/o

plasma

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splen/o

spleen

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thym/o

thymus gland

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valv/o, valvul/o

valve

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ventricul/o

ventricle

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ather/o

yellowish, fatty plaque

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ech/o

sound

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electr/o

electricity, electrical cavity

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isch/o

deficiency, blockage

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therm/o

heat

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thromb/o

clot

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brady-

slow

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-ac

pertaining to

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-apheresis

removal

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-graph

insturment used to record; record

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-penia

abnormal reduction in number

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-poiesis

formation

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-sclerosis

hardening

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angioma (an-je-O-ma)

tumor composed of blood vessels

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angiostenosis (an-je-o-ste-NO-sis)

narrowing of a blood vessel

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aortic stenosis (a-OR-tik ste-NO-sis)

narrowing, pertaining to aorta

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arteriosclerosis (ar-ter-e-o-skle-RO-sis)

harderning of the arteries

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atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skle-RO-sis)

hardening of fatty plaque

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bradycardi (brad-e-KAR-de-a)

condition of a slow heart

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cardiomegaly (kar-de-o-MEG-a-le)

enlargement of the heart

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cardiomyopathy (kar-de-o-mi-OP-a-the)

disease of the heart muscle

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endocarditis (en-do-kar-DI-tis)

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

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ischemia (is-KE-me-a)

deficiency of blood flow

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myocarditis (mi-o-kar-DI-tis)

inflammation of the heart muscle

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pericarditis (per-i-kar-DI-tis)

inflammation of the sac surronding the heart

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phlebitis (fle-BI-tis)

inflammation of the vein

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polyarteritis (pol-e-ar-te-RI-tis)

inflammation of many arteries

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tachycardia (tak-i-KAR-de-a)

condition of a rapid heart (more than 100 bpm)

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thrombophlebitis (throm-bo-fle-BI-tis)

inflammation of a vein associated with a clot

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valvulitis (val-vu-LI-tis)

inflammation of a valve of the heart

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hematoma (he-ma-TO-ma)

tumor of blood

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multiple myeloma (MUL-te-pl mi-e-LO-ma)

tumors of bone marrow

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pancytopenia (pan-si-to-PE-ne-a)

abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells

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thrombosis (throm-BO-sis)

abnormal condition of a (blood) clot

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thrombus (THROM-bus)

blood clot attached to an interior wall of an artery or vein

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lymphadenitis (lim-fad-e-NI-tis)

inflammation of lymph nodes

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lymphadenopathy (lim-fad-e-NOP-a-the)

disease of the lymph nodes

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lymphoma (lim-FO-ma)

tumor of lymphatic tissue

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splenomegaly (sple-no-MEG-a-le)

enlargement of the spleen

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thymoma (thi-MO-ma)

tumor of th thymus gland

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acute coronary syndrome

sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina

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aneurysm (AN-u-rizm)

ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall

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angina pectoris (an-JI-na PEK-to-ris)

chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle.

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arrhythmia (a-RITH-me-a)

any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern

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atrial fibrilation (AFib) (A-tre-al fi-bri-LA-shun)

a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria.

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cardiac arrest (KAR-de-ak a-REST)

sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires CPR

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cardiac tamponade (KAR-de-ak tam-po-NAD)

acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity

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coarctation of the aorta (ko-ark-TA-shun a OR-ta)

congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta

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congenital heart disease (kon-JEN-i-tal hart di-ZEZ)

heart abnormality present at birth

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congestive heart failure (CHF)

inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen

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coronary artery disease (CAD)

a condition that reduces the flow of a blood through the coronary arteries to th myocardium

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coronary occlusion (KOR-o-nar-e o-KLU-zhun)

obstruction of an artery of the heart.

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deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body

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hypertensive heart disease (HHD)

disorder of the heart caused by persistent high blood pressure

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intermittent claudication (in-ter-MIT-nt klaw-di-KA-shun)

pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking

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mitral valve stenosis (MI-tral ste-NO-sis)

a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring; usually caused by episodes

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myocardial infarcation (MI)

deathof a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply

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peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

disease of the arteries in the arms and legs, resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery

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rheumatic heart disease

damage to the heart muscle of heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever

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varicose veins

distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities

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anemia

reduction in the number of red blood cells.