Muscular System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular System Deck (133):
1

myology

scientific study of muscles

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skeletal muscle

attached primarily to bone, striated and voluntary

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cardiac muscle

most of the heart, striated and involuntary

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smooth muscle

walls of hollow internal organs, blood vessels, stomach, non-striated, involuntary

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functions of muscle tissue

1. produce body movements 2. stabilize body positions 3. store and move substances within the body 4. generate heat

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tendon

""pick up sticks"" (panty hose) fascia, stretched beyond muscle as connective tissue attaches muscle to bone

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muscle fascicle

groups of 10 to 100 or more muscle fibers, arranged in bundles

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muscle fiber (cell)

1 ""pick up stick"" each muscle is a separate organ composed of hundreds of long, cylindrical cells, lie parallel to one another. contains myofibrils

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myofibrils

""piece"" threads in sarcoplasm, extends lengthwise. contain the myofilaments

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myofilaments

what thick and thin filaments are called, contractile proteins

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thick filament- myosin

2 golf clubs twisted together, produce power stroke

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thin filament- actin

twisted helix, binding site for myosin

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thin filament- tropomyosin

covers the myosin head-binding site on actin in relaxed muscle

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thin filament- troponin

once bound to calcium, drags tropomyosin away from the binding sites

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sarcomere

describes the arrangement of the above myofilaments. compartments where think and thick filaments are arranged. basic functional unit of the muscle cell

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sarcoplasm

muscle fiber cytoplasm

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the sliding filament mechanism

describes a muscle contraction. the length of the filaments do not change, filaments overlap, shortening the sarcomere as the muscle contracts.

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sarcoplasmic reticulum

a fluid filled cavity around each myofibril that stores calcium via the calcium pump

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calcium

in relaxed muscle, calcium is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. when released starts the filaments sliding (contracts)

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what must happen for a muscle to contract?

motor neuron, action potential, acetylcholin is released, release of calcium, calcium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium binds to troponin

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ATP

energy source that makes all this happen

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how does muscle fiber relax?

action potential stops, acetylcholine stops, calcium chambers close, calcium pump removes the remaining calcium, myosin heads no longer can bind, muscle will now relax

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origin of muscle

attachment to tendon to stationary bone

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insertion of muscle

attachment of other tendon to movable bone

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belly of muscle

fleshy portion of muscle between the tendons

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muscles of facial expression

originate in the bones of skull and insert into the skin

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frontal belly

scalp anteriorly

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occipital belly

scalp posteriorly

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orbicularis oris

closes and protrudes the lips. shapes the lips during speech

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zygomaticus (major and minor)

muscles for smiling

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levator labii superioris

raises upper lip

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depressor labii inferioris

depresses lower lip

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buccinator

major cheek muscle

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platysma

draws lower lip inferiorly, depresses mandible

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orbicularis oculi

closes eye

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intrinsic of eyeball

muscles that would originate and insert inside the eye

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extrinsic of eyeball

outside the eye. fastest contracting and most precisely controlled skeletal muscles of the body.

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superior rectus

eyeball superiorly

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inferior rectus

eyeball inferiorly

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lateral rectus

eyeball laterally

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medial rectus

eyeball medially

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superior oblique

rotate eye on axis

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inferior oblique

rotate eye on axis

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muscles that move the mandible

muscles of mastication

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masseter

elevates the mandible as in chewing

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temporalis

elevates and retracts mandible as in chewing

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muscles that move the tongue

need for chewing, swallowing

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extrinsic of tongue

outside the tongue, moves the entire tongue

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intrinsic of tongue

inside the tongue, alter the shape of the tongue

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placement of hyoid bone

in the neck, between mandible & larynx, doesn't articulate with any other bone

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sternocleidomastoid

flex cervical/neck area, flex head and rotate head to side

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semispinalis capitis

acting together, extend head, singly, rotate head to side

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splenius capitis

acting together, extend head. singly rotate head to same side

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tendionous intersections

anterior surface of the rectus abdominis is interrupted by 3 transverse fibrous bands of tissue

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linea alba

(white line) tough, fibrous band extends from the xiphoid process of the pubic symphysis

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rectus abdominis

flexes vertebral column, lumbar and compresses abdomen

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external oblique and internal oblique

acting together, flexes vertebral. singly, latterly flexes vertebral column

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transversus abdominis

compresses abdomen

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muscles in anterolateral abdominal wall superficial to deep

external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis

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diaphragm

dome shaped, most important muscle that powers breathing. results in inhalation

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intercostals

breathing muscles, between the ribs

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external intercostals

inhalation

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internal intercostals

exhalation

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muscles of pelvic floor

pelvic diaphragm, stretches from pubis to the coccyx and one lateral wall to the other

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levator ani and coccygeus and ischiococcygeus

supports and maintains position of pelvic viscera

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muscles of the perineum

inferior to the pelvic diaphragm

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external urethral sphincter

expels last drop of urine and semen

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external anal sphincter

keeps anal canal and anus closed

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pectoralis minor

(anterior,deep) abducts scapula and rotates it downward

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serratus anterior

(anterior, saw-toothed) abducts scapula and rotates it upward. punching and pushing

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trapezius

(posterior) located in the neck and upper back area. elevates scapula, extends head

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pectoralis major

located in the upper chest. adducts and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint. crosses arms

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latissimus dorsi

triangular muscle located in the middle and inferior part of back. draws arms inferiorly and posteriorly

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deltoid

located over shoulder. abducts arm, flex and medially rotate and extend and laterally rotate at shoulder joint

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rotator cuff muscles

strengthens and stabilizes the shoulder joint. supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis

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muscles that move the radius and ulna

most cause flexion and extension at the elbow which is a hinge joint

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flexors

anterior surface of the rectus abdominis is interrupted by 3 transverse fibrous bands of tissue

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biceps brachii

flexes forearm

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brachialis

flexes forearm

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brachioradialis

flexes forearm

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extensors

posterior surface

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triceps brachii

extends forearm

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muscles that move the wrist, hand and fingers

are many and varies; located in the forearm

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anterior compartment muscles

flexors

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posterior compartment muscles

extensors

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flexors retinaculum

over the palmar surface of the carpal bones

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gluteus maximus

extends thigh at hip joint and laterally rotates thigh

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gluteus medius

abducts thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh

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gluteus minimus

abducts thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh

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anterior (extensor) compartment

thigh extends the leg (at knee joint) and flexes the thigh (at hip joint)

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quadriceps femoris

largest muscle in the body. composite of four separate muscles

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rectus femoris

only one to flex thigh at hip joint

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vastus lateralis

all extends leg a knee joint

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sartorius

longest muscle in body. flexes leg at knee joint. rotates thigh at hip joint

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semimembranosus

extends thigh at hip joint

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anterior compartment (dorsiflex) - tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion of foot at ankle joint

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pasterior compartment (plantar flexion) -gastrocnemius

plantar flexes foot at ankle joint

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posterior compartment (plantar flexion) -soleus

plantar flexes foot at ankle joint

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calcaneal (achilles) tendon

superficial muscles share this common tendon of insertion. strongest tendon of the body, inserts into the calcaneal bone of the ankle

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posterior (flexor) compartment

thigh flexes the leg and extends the thigh

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hamstrings

composite of three separate muscles

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biceps femoris

all

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semitendinosus

flexes leg at knee joint

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isometric contractions

tension increases greatly without a change in muscle length

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isotonic contraction

tension remains constant as muscle length decreases or increases

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rigor mortis

state of rigidity after death, calcium ions leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Myosin heads bind to actin that won't detach from ATP absence. stuck for 24 hours then disintegrate.

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twitch

brief contraction in motor unit in response to a single action potential in its motor neuron

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muscle tone

at rest, small amount of tautness or tension due to weak, involuntary contractions of its motor units

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hypotonia (flaccid paralysis)

loss of muscle tone, loose, flattened. muscles may atrophy and degenerate

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hypertonia (spasticity)

increased muscle tone may become stiff or rigid

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muscular atrophy

reduction in size

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disuse

casting, bedridden

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denervation

loss of nerve supply

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cellular respiration

oxygen + glucose = ATP

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botulism

a disease characterized by severe, potentially fatal paralysis of skeletal muscles, that results from the consumption of a bacterial toxin.

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carpal tunnel syndrome

inflammation of the sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons of the palm and leads to nerve compression and pain.

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compartment syndrome

Ischemia that results form accumulated blood and fluid trapped within limb muscle compartments formed by partitions of dense connenctive tissue

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fibrosis

a process in which a tissue is replaced by fibrous connective tissue. Fibrosis makes muscles weaker and less flexible.

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hernia

a condition involving an organ or a body part that protrudes through an abnormal opening in the wall fo a body cavity.

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Intramuscular Injection (IM)

the administration of a drug by injectiong it into the mass of a large skeletal muscle.

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ischemia

a deficiency of blood (''blood starvation'') in a body part due to compression of a regional vessels.

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muscle cramps

prolonged, involuntary, painful mussular contrations.

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muscular dystrophies

a varied collection of inherited diseases that produce progressive muscle weakness and deterioration.

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myalgia

muscular pain; a common symptom of a wide variety of conditions and infections.

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myasthenia gravis

a general muscular weakness that results from a reduction in the number of Ach receptors on the motor end plate

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myoma

a benign tumor of muscle tissue

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myositis

inflammation of muscle tissue

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polio

a viral disease in which the destruction of motor neurons produces paralysis and atrophy of motor units.

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rigor mortis

a state following death during which muscles are locked in the contracted position, which make sthe body extremely stiff.

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sarcoma

a malignant tumor of mesoderm-derived tissue (muscle, bone or other ocnnective tissue).

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strains

tears or breaks in muscles

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tendinitis

inflammation of the conenctive tissue that surrounds a tendon.

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tetanus

a disease caused by a bacterial toxin that results in sustained, powerful contractions of skeletal muscles throughout the body.