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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (172):
1

periosteum

outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue

2

compact bone

dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum

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cancellous (spongy) bone

contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bones

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endosteum

membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone

5

diaphysis

shaft of the long bones

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epiphysis (pl. epiphyses)

end of each long bone

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bone marrow

material found in the cavities of the bones

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red marrow

thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formaiton

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yellow marrow

soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones

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maxilla

upper jaw bone

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mandible

lower jaw bone

12

vertebral column

made up of bones called vertebrae (pl) or vertebra (singular) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord

13

cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7)

first set of seven bones, froming the neck

14

thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12)

second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pair of ribs to form the outward curve of the spin.

15

lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)

third set of five larger vertebrae, which form the inward curve of the spine

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sacrum

next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones

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coccyx

four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone

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lamina (pl. laminae)

part of the vertebral arch

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clavicle

collarbone

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scapula

shoulder blade

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acromion process

extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder

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sternum

breastbone

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xiphoid process

lower portion of the sternum

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humerus

upper arm bone

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ulna and radius

lower arm bones

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olecranon process

projection at the upper end of the ulnathat forms the the bony point of the elbow

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carpal bones

wrist bones

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metacarpal bones

hand bones

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phalanges (sing. phalanx)

finger and toe bones

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pelvic bone, hip bone

made up of three bones fused together

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ischium

lower rear portion on which one sits

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ilium

upper, wing-shaped part on each side

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pubis

anterior portion of the pelvic bone

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acetabulum

large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur

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femur

upper leg bone

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tibia and fibula

lower leg bones

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patella (pl. patellae)

kneecap

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tarsal bones

ankle bones

39

calcaneus

heel bone

40

metatarsal bones

foot bones

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articular cartilage

smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the contacting surface of joints

42

meniscus

crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee

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intervertebral disk

cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine

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pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come together

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synovia

fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities

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bursa (pl. bursae)

fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of the joint or the other

47

ligament

flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint

48

tendon

band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

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aponeurosis

strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone

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skeletal muscles (also known as striated muscles)

attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and by working in pairs. They are also called voluntary muscles because we have control over these muscles.

51

smooth muscles (also known as unstriated muscles)

located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. They are also called involuntary muscles because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily

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cardiac muscle (known as myocardium)

forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat

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abduction (ab-DUK-shun)

moving away from the midline

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adduction (ad-DUK-shun)

moving toward the midline

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inversion (in-VER-zhun)

turning inward

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eversion (e-VER-zhun)

turning outward

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extension (ek-STEN-shun)

movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position

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flexion

movement in which the limb is bent

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pronation

movement that turns the palm down

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supination

movement tha turns the palm up

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rotation

turning around its own axis

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carp/o

carpals (wrist bone)

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clavic/o, clavicul/o

clavicle (collarbone)

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cost/o

rib

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crani/o

cranium (skull)

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femor/o

femur (upper leg bone)

67

fibul/o

fibula (lower leg bone)

68

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone)

69

ili/o

ilium

70

ischi/o

ischium

71

lumb/o

loin, lumbar region of the spine

72

mandibul/o

mandible (lower jawbone)

73

maxil/o

maxilla (upper jawbone)

74

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

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pelv/i, pelv/o

pelvis, pelvic bone

76

phalang/o

phalanges (finger or toe bones)

77

pub/o

pubis

78

rachi/o

spine/vertebral column

79

radi/o

radius (lower arm bone)

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sacr/o

sacrum

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scapul/o

scapula (shoulder blade)

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spondyl/o, vertebr/o

vertebra

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stern/o

sternum

84

tars/o

tarsals (ankle bone)

85

tibi/o

tibia (lower leg bone)

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uln/o

ulna (lower arm bone)

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aponeur/o

aponeurosis

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arthr/o

joint

89

burs/o

bursa (cavity)

90

chondr/o

cartilage

91

disk/o

intervertebral disk

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menisc/o

meniscus (crescent)

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synovi/o

synovia, synovial membrane

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ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon

95

ankyl/o

crooked, stiff, bent

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kinesi/o

movement, motion

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kyph/o

hump (increased convexity of the spine)

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lamin/o

lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)

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lord/o

bent forward (increased concavity of the spine)

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myel/o (also means spinal cord)

bone marrow

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my/o, myos/o

muscle

102

oste/o

bone

103

petr/o

stone

104

scoli/o

crooked, curved

105

inter-

between

106

supra-

above

107

sym-, syn-

together, jointed

108

-asthenia

weakness

109

-clasia, clasis, -clast

break

110

-desis

surgical fixation, fusion

111

-physis

growth

112

-schisis

split, fissure

113

ankylosis (ang-ki-LO-sis)

abnormal condition of stiffness

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arthritis (ar-THRI-tis)

inflammation of a joint

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bursitis (ber-SI-tis)

inflammation of the bursa

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chondromalacia (kon-dro-ma-LA-sha)

softening of the cartilage

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cranioschisis (kra-ne-OS-ki-sis)

fissure of the skull (congenital)

118

diskitis (dis-KI-tis)

inflammation of the an intervertebral disk (also called discitis)

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fibromyalgia (fi-bro-mi-AL-ja)

pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles

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kyphosis (ki-FO-sis)

abnormal condition of a hump (also called humpback or hunchback)

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lordosis (lor-DO-sis)

abnormal condition of bending forward (also called swayback)

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maxillitis (mak-si-LI-tis)

inflammation of the maxilla

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meniscitis (men-i-SI-tis)

inflammation of the meniscus

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myasthenia (mi-as-THE-ne-a)

muscle weakness

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myeloma (mi-e-LO-ma)

tumor of the bone marrow (malignant)

126

osteitis (os-te-I-tis)

inflammation of the bone

127

osteoarthritis (os-te-o-ar-THRI-tis)

inflammation of the bone and joint

128

osteochondritis (os-te-o-kon-DRI-tis)

inflammation of the bone and cartilage

129

osteofibroma (os-te-o-fi-BRO-ma)

tumor of the bone and fibrous tissue (benign)

130

osteomalacia (os-te-o-ma-LA-sha)

softening of bones

131

osteomyelitis (os-te-o-mi-e-LI-tis)

inflammation of the bone and bone marrow (caused by bacterial infection)

132

osteopenia (os-te-o-PE-ne-a)

abnormal reduction of bone mass (caused bu inadequate replacement of bone lost to normal bone lysis and can lead to osteoporosis)

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osteopetrosis (os-te-o-pe-TRO-sis)

abnormal condition of stonelike bones (marble like bones caused by increased formation of bone)

134

osteosarcoma (os-te-o-sar-KO-ma)

malignant tumor of the bone

135

polymyositis (pol-e-mi-o-SI-tis)

inflammation of many muscles

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rachischisis (ra-KIS-ki-sis)

fissure of the vertebral column (also called spinal bifida)

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rhabdomyolysis (rab-do-mi-OL-i-sis)

dissolution of striated muscle (severity can vary can be caused trauma, extreme exertion and drug toxicity)

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sarcopenia (sar-ko-PE-ne-a)

abnormal reduction of connective tissue

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scoliosis (sko-le-O-sis)

abnormal condition of (lateral) curved spine

140

spondylarthritis (spon-dil-ar-THRI-tis)

inflammation of the vertebral joints

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spondylosis (spon-di-LO-sis)

abnormal condition of the vertebra

142

synoviosarcoma (si-no-ve-o-sar-KO-ma)

malignant tumor of the synovial membrane

143

tendinitis (ten-di-NI-tis)

inflammation of a tendon (also spelt tendonitis)

144

tenosynovitis (ten-o-sin-o-VI-tis)

inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane

145

ankylosing spondylitis (ang-ki-LO-sing spon-di-LI-tis)

form of arthirits that first affects the spine and adjacent structures and that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend to the spine (also called strumpell-Marie arthritis or disease, or rheumatiod spondylitis)

146

bunion (BUN-yun)

abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called hallux valgus)

147

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve. Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in portions of the hand

148

Colles fracture (KOL-ez)

a type of wrist fracture. The fracture is at the distal end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.

149

exostosis (ek-sos-TO-sis)

abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (also called spur)

150

fracture (fx)

broken bone

151

gout

disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis

152

herniated disk

rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protude through it, putting pressure of the spinal nerve roots (also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk or herniated nucleus pulposus [HNP])

153

lyme disease

an infection caused by bacteria carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. May include rash and flu like symptoms.

154

muscular dystrophy (MD)

group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscles and weakness

155

myasthenia gravis (MG)

chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx and throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscles exists.

156

osteoporosis (os-te-o-po-RO-sis)

abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma

157

rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

a chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body

158

spinal stenosis

narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots. The condition is wither congenital or due to spinal degeneration. Symptoms are pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs and numbness or tingling in the lower extremities.

159

spondylolisthesis (spon-di-lo-lis-THE-sis)

forward slipping of one vertebra over another

160

aponeurorrhaphy (ap-o-nu-ROR-a-fe)

suture of an aponeurosis

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arthrocentesis (ar-thro-sen-TE-sis)

surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid

162

arthroclasia (ar-thro-KLA-zha)

surgical breaking of a stiff joint

163

arthrodesis (ar-thro-DE-sis)

surgical fixation of a joint (also called joint fusion)

164

arthroplasty (AR-thro-plas-te)

surgical repair of a joint

165

bursectomy

excision of a bursa

166

carpectomy (kar-PEK-to-me)

excision of a carpal bone

167

chondrectomy (kon-DREK-to-me)

excision of a cartilage

168

Total hip replacement arthroplasty (THA)

replacement of the hip joint with a metallic femoral head and a plastic coated acetabulum

169

Birmingham hip resurfacing

used for younger active patients. removal of a few millimeters of bone from the femoral head instead of the entire femoral head. a metal cap is placed on top of the femur, and smooth metal is placed in the acetabulum.

170

Total knee joint replacement arthroplasty (TKA)

is designed to replace worn surfaces of the knee joint. Various prostheses are used.

171

metatarsal arthroplasty

is used to treat deformities associated with rheumatoid arthritis or hallux valgus and to treat painful or unstable joints.

172

chondroplasty (KON-dor-plas-te)

surgical repair of a cartilage