Radio 145 Final Flashcards Preview

Dentistry > Radio 145 Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radio 145 Final Deck (105):
1

Who developed the first x-ray tube

Coolidge

2

Who discovered x-rays

Roentgen

3

Who expose the first dental radiograph

Walkhoff

4

What type of electrical charge does the electron carry

Negative

5

What describes ionization

Atom that loses an electron

6

Where are x-rays produced

In the negative cathode

7

Where does thermionic emission occur

Negative cathode

8

What describes primary radiation

Radiation that exits the tube head

9

What describes scatter radiation

Radiation that has been deflected from its path by interaction with matter

10

In general imaging what is the quality of the x-ray beam controlled by

Kilo voltage

11

What is the kilo voltage range for current dental x-ray machines

70 to 100 kV

12

What does a higher kilovoltage produce x-rays with

Greater energy levels, shorter wavelengths, more penetrating ability

13

Results from radiation produced with high kilovoltage

Short wavelengths

14

What is the milliamperage range used for current dental x-ray machines

6 to 8 mA

15

What is the overall blackness or darkness of an image

Density

16

If kilovoltage is decreased with no other variations in exposure factors, what will the resulting image look like

Appears lighter

17

What is the term that describes how dark and light areas are differentiated on an image

Contrast

18

The latent period In radiation biology is the time between

Exposure to x-radiation and clinical symptoms

19

Radiation injuries that are not seen in the person irradiated but that occur in future generations are termed

Genetic effects

20

What is most susceptible to ionizing radiation

Small lymphocyte

21

What is the sensitivity of tissues to radiation determined by

Cell differentiation, cell metabolism, mitotic activity

22

What is considered radio resistant

Mature bone cells

23

What is an organ that if damage diminishes the quality of life termed

Critical

24

What is the greatest contributor to artificial radiation exposure

Medical radiation

25

X radiation is not harmful to living tissues

False

26

Every patient should be evaluated individually prior to prescribing dental images

True

27

The thyroid collar must be worn for both intraoral and extra oral exposures

False

28

If necessary the dental radiographer may hold a receptor in the patient's mouth to ensure a diagnostic image

False

29

What describes the function of a filter in a dental x-ray tube head

It removes low energy x-rays

30

What is the most effective method of reducing patient exposure to radiation

Fast films

31

Which position indicating device is most effective in reducing patient exposure

Rectangular

32

Which device restricts the size and shape of the x-ray beam

Collimator

33

Which material is used as a collimator

Lead

34

What is the recommended size of the beam at the patient's face

2.75 inches

35

What term describes the dose of radiation that the body can door with little or no chance of injury

Maximum permissible dose

36

The radiation monitoring badge should be worn at waist level when exposing x-ray receptors

True

37

What are dental receptors place inside the mouth termed

Intraoral

38

What is the component part of the dental x-ray machine that contains the x-ray tube termed

Tube head

39

What is used to restrict the size of the x-ray beam to the size of an intraoral receptor

Collimating device

40

Why is the identification dot on the intraoral film significant

Indicates the patients right or left side, determines film orientation, is important in film mounting

41

What is one advantage of a film with an emulsion coating on both sides

The film requires less radiation exposure to make an image

42

What is the purpose of a lead foil sheet in the film packet

To protect the film from backscattered radiation

43

What is the largest intraoral film size

4

44

The portion of a dental image that appears dark or black is termed what

Radiolucent

45

What is the portion of a dental image that appears light or white termed

Radiopaque

46

What appears most radio Lucent on a dental image

Air space

47

What appears most radiopaque on a dental image

Enamel

48

The overall blackness or darkness of a dental image is termed what

Density

49

What do leaks of white light in the dark room cause

Film fogging

50

How many feet at minimum must a safe flight be placed from the film and work area

4

51

Why should unopened boxes of radiographic film not be stored in the dark room

Chemical fumes from processing solutions may fog the film

52

How often should the processing tank be cleaned

Whenever solutions are changed

53

For quality control purposes each new box of unopened film should be tested for film freshness and fogging before it is used

True

54

How will fresh film appear that has been stored properly after processing

Clear with a slight blue tint

55

What is the coin test used to check

Proper safe lighting

56

What is a reference radiograph used to check

Strength of the developer solution

57

What is the clearing test used to monitor

Fixer strength

58

Use of a chemical or physical procedure to destroy all pathogen's including spores

Sterilize

59

Micro organisms capable of causing disease

Pathogen

60

Exposure to infectious materials resulting from the procedures performed by the dental professional

Occupational exposure

61

Exposure to infectious materials that result from piercing or puncturing the skin

Parenteral exposure

62

Use of a chemical or physical procedure to destroy all pathogen's except spores

Disinfect

63

Instrument used to penetrate soft tissue or bone

Critical instrument

64

Waste that consists of blood blood products contaminated sharps and other microbiological products

Infectious waste

65

Absence of pathogen's

Asepsis

66

What is the primary purpose of infection control

To prevent disease transmission

67

What are the three possible routes of disease transmission

Direct, indirect, airborne

68

What is the proper direction of the central ray in the bisecting technique

90° to the imaginary bisector

69

Describe the distance between the receptor and the tooth in the bisecting technique

The receptor is placed as close as possible to the tooth

70

What's an advantage of the bisecting technique

Shorter exposure time

71

The disadvantages of the bisecting technique outweigh the advantages

True

72

What size receptor is recommended for use with the bitewing technique in the adult patient

Size 2

73

What size receptor is recommended for use with the bitewing technique in the pediatric patient with primary dentition

Size 0

74

How is the patient's head position before exposing a bitewing receptor

Maxillary arch is parallel to the floor mid sagittal plane is perpendicular to the floor

75

What size receptor is used to include all of the posterior teeth in one bitewing exposure

Size 3

76

What type of angulation is determined by the up and down movement of the position indicating device

Vertical angulation

77

What type of angulation is determined by the side to side movement of the PID

Horizontal angulation

78

When the central ray of the x-ray is not directed through the contact areas of the teeth what error is seen on the resulting image

Overlapped contacts

79

When does it cone cut result

When the beam is not centered over the film the x-ray doesn't hit the film

80

Too much vertical angulation results in images that are what

For shortened

81

To little vertical angulation results in images that are what

Elongated

82

Incorrect horizontal angulation results in images that are what

Overlapped

83

What errors can occur with the bitewing technique

Overlap contacts, cone cut

84

What errors can occur with the bisecting technique

Elongation, overlapped contacts, Cone cut, phalangioma

85

What describes a use of a panoramic image

Evaluation of impacted molars

86

What is the zone in which structures are clearly demonstrated on a panoramic image termed

Focal trough

87

Why aren't thyroid collars recommended in panoramic imaging

It blocks the x-ray beam and obscures information

88

What imaginary plane passes from the bottom of the eyesocket through the top of the ear canal

Frankfort

89

What procedure has a collimator is a lead plate with the small round or rectangle or opening

Intraoral image

90

Procedure must earrings and necklaces be removed for

Panoramic imaging

91

Procedure requires the mid sagittal plane to be positioned perpendicular to the floor

Panoramic and intraoral imaging

92

During which procedure must the vertebral column be perfectly straight

Panoramic imaging

93

In digital imaging the term used to describe the picture that is produced is radiograph

False

94

Digital imaging requires more x-radiation than conventional radiography

False

95

The x-radiation source used in most dental imaging systems is a conventional dental x-ray unit

True

96

All intraoral sensors can be heat sterilized after use

False

97

One advantage of a digital imaging system is the superior grayscale resolution that results

True

98

The manipulation of the original digital images can be considered a legal issue

True

99

When was digital imaging introduced to dentistry

1987

100

What can digital imaging be used for

Detecting conditions of teeth and surrounding structures, evaluating the growth and development of jaws, confirmation of suspected disease

101

Why does digital imaging require less radiation then conventional radiography

The sensor is more sensitive to x-rays

102

The image receptor found in the intraoral sensor is termed what

CCD

103

What restorative material is least radiopaque

Acrylic

104

Describe the difference between a gold crown and a stainless steel crown as viewed on a dental image

Gold crowns are large radiopaque with smooth contours and regular borders stainless steel is thin less radiopaque with some see-through areas

105

What's the difference between gutta Percha and silver points as viewed on a dental image

Gutta Percha is less radiopaque silver points are highly radiopaque