Radio Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Radio Exam 3 Deck (106):
1

The latent period in radiation biology is the time between...

Exposure to x-radiation and clinical symptoms

2

A free radical

An uncharged molecule, has an unpaired electron in the outer shell, highly reactive/unstable, combines with molecules to form toxins

3

Direct radiation injury occurs when...

X-ray protons hit critical targets within a cell

4

Indirect radiation injury occurs when...

X-ray photons are absorbed and form toxins

5

Which relationship describes the response of tissues to radiation

Linear, nonthreshold

6

Which factors contribute to radiation injury

Total dose, dose rate, age, cell sensitivity

7

Long-term effects are seen with small amounts of radiation absorbed in a long period

True

8

Radiation injuries that are not seen in the person irradiated but that occur in future generations are termed...

Genetic effects

9

What is most susceptible to ionizing radiation

Small lymphocyte

10

The sensitivity of tissues to radiation is determined by

Mitotic activity, cell differentiation, cell metabolism

11

What is considered radioresistant

Mature bone cells

12

An organ that, if damaged, diminishes the quality of an individuals life is termed

Critical

13

The traditional unit for measuring x-ray exposure in air is termed

Roentgen

14

Which radiation unit is determined by the quality factor (QF)

Rem

15

The unit for measuring the absorption of x-rays is termed

Rad

16

1 R = 2.58 X 10 to the -4 C/kg, 1 Gy = 100 rad, 1 Sv = 100 rem, 1 rem = rad X QF

All correct conversions

17

What traditional unit does not have an SI equivalent

Roentgen

18

What is used only for x-rays

Roentgen

19

What is the approximate average dose of background radiation received by an individual in the United States

300 mrem/ 3.0 mSv

20

What is the greatest contributor to artificial radiation exposure

Medical radiation

21

The amount of radiation exposure an individual receives varies depending on

Receptor type, collimation, technique

22

A single intraoral image using digital sensor results in an effective exposure dose of

0.002 mSv

23

What is the dose at which leukemia induction is most likely to occur

5000 mrad (0.05) Gy

24

Smallest effective does using digital receptors

Single periapical/rectangular collimation

25

Second smallest effective dose using digital receptors

Single bite-wing/round collimation

26

3rd/medium effective dose using digital receptors

Panoramic

27

4th/large effective dose using digital receptors

Complete series/rectangular collimation

28

Largest effective dose using digital receptors

Complete series/round collimation

29

Smallest annual source of radiation exposure

Consumer products

30

2nd annual source of radiation exposure

Terrestrial (soil)

31

3rd annual source of radiation exposure

Cosmic (space)

32

4th annual source of radiation exposure

Medical procedures

33

Largest annual source of radiation

Radon and thoron

34

Localization of foreign objects is the most important use of dental images

False

35

When images are properly prescribed, the benefit of disease detection does not outweigh the risk of small doses of radiation

False

36

Through the use of dental images, the dental professional can detect diseases, lesions, and conditions of the jaws that cannot be identified clinically

True

37

A dental image contains less information than a written record

False

38

Missing, extra, and impacted teeth can be identified on a dental image

True

39

The dental radiographer is any person who positions, exposes, and processes dental x-ray receptors

True

40

The dental radiographer is assigned only to position and expose dental x-ray imaging receptors

False

41

The dental radiographer may be assigned to monitor and implement quality control procedures

True

42

Patient and operator protection must be primary concerns of the dental radiographer

True

43

Operator competence is maintained by repeatedly performing dental imaging duties

False

44

Skills that promote a good relationship between individuals are termed facilitation skills

False

45

Interpersonal skills are skills that are used to make communication easier and develop a trusting relationship between the patient and the dental professional

False

46

A patient must always be greeted by their first name

False

47

The dental auxiliary must develop a fast paced, confident chairside manner

False

48

What does the term bite-wing refer to

Patient bites on a wing/bite block/ tab to stabilize the film

49

What size film is recommended for use with bite-wing tech in adult patient

2

50

What size receptor recommended for bite-wing tech in pediatric patient with primary dentition

0

51

What is primary use of bite-wing images

Interproximal decay/caries detection

52

What size receptor used to include all the posterior teeth in one bite-wing exposure

3

53

What type of angulation is determined by the up-and-down movement of the position-indicating device

Vertical angulation

54

What type of angulation is determined by the side-to-side movement of the PID

Horizontal angulation

55

When the central ray of the x-ray is not directed through the contact areas of teeth, what error is seen on the resulting image

Overlapped contacts

56

Correct vertical angulation with bite-wing tech/bite tab

+10 degrees

57

What describes the relationship of the receptor to maxillary and mandibular teeth in bite-wing tech

Receptor and teeth are parallel to each other

58

Anterior bite-wings can be placed horizontally

False

59

Anterior bite-wings can be placed vertically

True

60

Posterior bite-wings can be placed horizontally

True

61

Posterior bite-wings can be placed vertically

True

62

Anterior periapical receptors are always exposed first

True

63

Posterior periapical receptors are exposed after anterior periapicals

True

64

Bite-wing receptors are exposed last

True

65

What is exposed first

Periapicals, maxillary anterior

66

What is exposed second

Periapicals, mandibular anterior

67

What is exposed 3rd

Periapicals, posterior

68

What is exposed 4th

Bite-wing premolars

69

What should be exposed last

Bite-wing molar

70

With total dose more damage occurs when tissues absorb _____ quantities of radiation

Large

71

With dose rate more damage takes place with _______ dose rates because repair cannot take place

High

72

With amount irradiated more damage occurs when _____ amounts of the body are exposed to radiation

Large

73

With cell sensitivity more damage occurs in cells that are more ______ to radiation

Sensitive

74

With age persons who are _____ are more susceptible to damage than persons who are _____

Children, adults

75

With stochastic effects the severity of the response is _______ of the dose

Not depended on magnitude

76

With non-stochastic effects the severity of the effect increases with _____ dose

Exposure

77

Examples of stochastic effects

Induction of leukemia/other cancers

78

Examples of non-stochastic effects

Loss of hair, skin erythema, cataracts, decreased fertility, radiation sickness, fetal death, teratogenesis

79

Sequence of radiation injury

Latent period, injury within cells, recovery

80

Short term effects are associated with ____ amounts of radiation absorbed in a ____ time

Large, short

81

Short term effects

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, hemorrhage

82

Long term effects

Cancer, birth/genetic defects

83

Bone marrow

Radiosensitive

84

Intestinal mucosa

Radiosensitive

85

Salivary gland

Radioresistant

86

Lens of eye

Radiosensitive

87

Kidney

Radioresistant

88

Oral mucosa

Radiosensitive

89

Liver

Radioresistant

90

Reproductive cells

Radiosensitive

91

Nerve tissue

Radioresistant

92

Skin

Radiosensitive

93

Thyroid gland

Radiosensitive

94

Muscle tissue

Radioresistant

95

Exposure unit of measurement traditional system

Roentgen (R)

96

Dose unit of measurement traditional system

Radiation absorbed (Rad)

97

Measurement for dose equivalent traditional system

Roentgen equivalent (in) man (rem)

98

MPD per year

5.0 rem

99

SI system measurement unit for dose

Gray (Gy)

100

SI measurement unit for dose equivalent

Sievert (SV)

101

4 ways to limit patient exposure

Rectangular collimation, digital sensor, increase target receptor distance, fast film

102

Bite wing exams are used to examine level of ____ bone

Crestal

103

How much does exposure decrease with use of film

50%-90%

104

How much is absorption reduced using F-speed instead of D-speed

60%

105

Stochastic effects

Genetic effect

106

Threshold curve

Below certain level no response seem. Response on left dose on bottom