Radio Ch 1,2,3,5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Radio Ch 1,2,3,5 Deck (97):
1

Who discovered x-rays

Wilhelm Conrad roentgen

2

What year were x-Rays discovered

1895 W. C. Roentgen

3

What is one of the most important uses of dental images

Detection

4

Year of panoramic imaging introduction (long come parallel tech)

1948 F. G. Fitzgerald

5

Year of bite-wing technique introduction (first text)

1925 H. R. Raper

6

Year of intraoral digital imaging introduction (first X-ray tube)

1913 W. D. Coolidge

7

Year of cone-beam computed tomography introduction

1998 General Electric

8

Year of first dental x-ray machine

1923 Victor X-Ray Corp

9

Year of F-speed film introduction

2000 General Electric

10

Year of first dental radiograph (on person)

1896 C. Edmund Kells

11

The appearance of x-rays are....

Invisible

12

Do x-Rays have mass

No

13

Do x-rays have charge

No

14

How fast do x-rays travel

The speed of light

15

What size are x-Ray wavelengths

Short

16

What frequency are x-ray wavelengths

High

17

Can the travel path of x-rays be deflected

Yes

18

Can x-Rays be focused to a point

Yes

19

Can x-rays penetrate liquids solids gases etc

Yes

20

Are x-rays absorbed by matter

Yes

21

Do x-rays cause ionization

Yes

22

Can x-Rays cause fluorescence

Yes

23

Can x-Rays cause biological changes in living cells

Yes

24

Low contrast in an image results from/in

Long scale contrast with many shades of gray

25

High contrast images result from/in

Short scale contrast with few shades of gray

26

Short scale contrast results from

High kV

27

Long scale contrast results from

Low kV

28

What is the range of kV currently used in dental imaging

65-100

29

What is the range of mA used in dental imaging

7-15

30

What's the formula used to calculate the inverse square law

Og intensity=new dist 2
New intensity og dist 2

31

What does the diameter of a collimated x-ray beam have to be restricted to

2.75 inches at the patients skin

32

What angle should the radiographer stand at by the beam

90-135

33

What is the MPD for occupation ally exposed persons

50 mSv/year

34

What is the MPD for nonoccupationally exposed persons

1 mSv/year

35

Radiation

Form of energy carried by waves or a stream of particles

36

X-radiation

High-energy radiation produced by collision of beam of electrons with metal target in tube

37

X-Ray

Beam of energy that can penetrate substances and record image shadows on receptors

38

Radiology

Science/study of radiation

39

Radiograph

Image/picture produced on receptor by exposing ionizing radiation

40

McCormack

Used paralleling tech in practical dentistry

41

Morton

Exposed first dental radiograph in U.S. (Skull)

42

Price

Introduced bisecting tech

43

Rollins

Wrote first paper on danger of xradiation

44

Year D-speed films introduced

1955

45

Year come beam scanners available in u.s.

2001

46

What results when matter is altered

Energy

47

What is the fundamental unit of matter

Atom

48

What are the two parts of an atom

Central nucleus and orbiting electrons

49

How are electrons maintained in their orbit

The electrostatic force

50

Neutron

In the nucleus has no charge

51

Ionization

Production of ions/process of converting an atom into ions

52

Radioactivity

Unstable atoms spontaneously disintegrate to attain balance

53

Electromagnetic radiation

Propagation of wavelength energy through space or matter

54

Metal housing

Metal body surrounding X-ray tube and tubehead protects X-ray tube

55

Tubehead seal

Aluminum or leaded glass covering of tubehead permits exit of X-rays/filter

56

Transformer

Alters voltage of incoming electricity

57

Aluminum disks

Filters out longer wavelengths

58

Lead collimator

Restricts size of beam

59

Leaded glass housing

Prevents X-rays from escaping in all directions

60

Copper stem

Dissipates heat away from tungsten target

61

Amperage

Measurement of number of electrons moving through conductor

62

Voltage

Measurement of electrical force that causes electrons to move from negative to positive pole

63

Step 1 of X-ray production

X-ray machine turned on by electricity supplied from wall outlet that travels through panel through extension arm to the tubehead

64

Step 2 of X-ray production

The filament circuit and step down transformer are activated starting at 110-220 and being reduced to 3-5 V

65

Step 3 of X-ray production

The filament circuit heats the tungsten filament and the electrons shell gains enough heat to produce an electron cloud near the filament

66

Step 4 of X-ray production

The high voltage circuit is activated by the push of the exposure button that shoots the electrons over to the anode directed by the molybdenum cup

67

Step 5 of X-ray production

Electrons hit tungsten target and convert into X-ray energy 1% X-ray 99% lost heat

68

Step 6 X-ray production

Heat is absorbed by insulating oil. Select X-rays are directed out of the unleaded glass housing.

69

Step 7 X-ray production

X-rays pass through unleaded glass window, tubehead, and aluminum disks. Disks filter longer wavelengths

70

Step 8 X-ray production

Beam is restricted by lead collimator through the PID where they exit the tubehead

71

Primary radiation

Penetrating X-ray beam

72

Secondary radiation

When primary beam interacts with matter

73

Which electrons have greatest binding energy

Kshell

74

2 or more atoms joined by chemical bond

Molecule

75

What are not particulate radiation

Nucleons

76

Not a type of electromagnetic radiation

Electrons

77

What regulates flow of electrical current to filament

Low voltage circuit

78

What is 70% of all X-ray energy produced at anode

Characteristic radiation

79

What occurs at 70 kV or higher/ small amount of X-rays produced

General radiation

80

What's primary radiation

Radiation that exits tubehead

81

What controls the quality of the X-ray beam

Kilovoltage

82

A higher kilovoltage produces X-rays with....

Greater energy levels, shorter wavelengths, more penetrating ability

83

Unit of measurement for amount of electric current in X-ray tube

Ampere

84

Increasing milliamperage results in an increase in....

Temp of filament and number of produced X-rays

85

Density

Overall image darkness

86

Decreased kilovoltage results in what

Lighter picture

87

Contrast

Dark and light differentiation

88

Increased milliamperage results in

Increased density

89

Half value layer

Amount of lead that restricts the diameter of the beam by half

90

Inherent filtration

Comes before aluminum disks (glass window, insulating oil, tubehead seal) equals .5-1 mm of aluminum

91

Total filtration

Inherent and added filtration combined. Below 70kV 1.5 mm above 70kV 2.5mm

92

ALARA

As low as reasonably achievable

93

Not a component of inherent filtration

A lead PID

94

Most effective method of reducing patient exposure

Fast film

95

PID most effective for reducing exposure

Rectangular

96

Device restricts size/shape of X-ray

Collimator

97

Formula for cumulative occupational dose

(N-18)X5 rem/year