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Flashcards in Rivers Key Terms Deck (76)
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61

Soil moisture surplus

Occurs after a period of recharge when precipitation > evapotranspiration (winter). Soils saturated = surface run off dominates.

62

Dissolved load / Solute

Part of load that's in solution

63

Solution

Process by which minerals in rocks making up the bed and bank are dissolved by carbonic or humic acids in water. Occurs continuously and unaffected by discharge or velocity.

64

Suspension

Lighter material held in water flow by turbulent eddies.

65

Stem flow

Intercepted precipitation which runs down stems of plants to ground

66

Storm hydrograph

Graph showing discharge against time following single precipitation event

67

Suspended load

Solid particles carried within the current but not touching bed

68

Thalweg

The longitudinal profile of a streambed along its line of max velocity

69

Through fall

Incoming precipitation which falls through vegetation and is NOT intercepted

70

Through flow

Process by which water moves through the soil under the influence of gravity

71

Traction

Bed load is transported by rolling of heavy particles

72

Transpiration

Process by which water is transferred from vegetation to atmosphere via stomata on leaves - output from drainage system

73

Water table

The upper boundary of the saturated rock beneath which cracks and pores are full of water. Upper surface of ground water layer. Rises in winter and falls in summer in response to variations in precipitation

74

Watershed

The boundary between one drainage basin and another marked by a ridge of high land beyond which precipitation will fall into adjacent basins

75

Wetted perimeter

Total length of water in a cross section of a river in contact with the bed and banks

76

Abrasion

Process of fluvial erosion whereby beds and banks are eroded by water borne sediments