Flashcards in Section 10E - Development Counseling Deck (57):
____ leadership development is one of the most important responsibilities of every Air Force leader.
Airmen. (Make it one of your highest priorities)
Leaders help Airmen identify their strengths and weaknesses, create action plans and support them throughout plan implementation and assessments. To be successful, what commitment is required from the Airmen?
Airmen must be committed to improving and candid in their self-assessments and goal setting.
How do leaders coach Airmen?
By 1) identifying weaknesses; 2) setting goals; 3) developing and implementing plans of action; and 4) providing oversight and motivation throughout the process.
Why do Air Force leaders counsel Airmen?
To help them 1) become better team members; 2) maintain or improve performance; and 3) prepare for the future.
To counsel effectively; leaders develop a counseling style that exemplifies what five characteristics?
1) Purpose; 2) flexibility; 3) respect; 4) communication; and 5) support.
Effective counseling requires open, two-way communication. (T/F)
To be effective counselors, what five qualities must Air Force leaders demonstrate?
1) Respect for Airmen; 2) self-awareness; 3) cultural awareness; 4) empathy; and 5) credibility.
How do leaders show respect for Airmen?
By allowing Airmen to take responsibility for their own ideas and actions, which creates mutual respect in the leader-subordinate relationship. This improves the chances of changing or maintaining behavior and achieving goals.
Why must leaders be aware of their own values, needs and biases prior to counseling Airmen?
Because self-awareness leaders are less likely to project their biases onto Airmen and more likely to act consistently with their own values and actions.
To be effective counselors, why do leaders need to be aware of the similarities and differences between individuals of different cultural backgrounds and how these factors may influence values, perspectives and actions?
So unfamiliarity with cultural backgrounds won't hinder addressing cultural issues. (Cultural awareness enhances your ability to display empathy.)
Empathy is being understanding and sensitive to the feelings, thoughts and experiences of another person to the point that you can almost feel or experience them yourself. Why is this quality important in leadership counseling?
So leaders can see and understand situations from the other person's perspective and help Airmen develop a plan of action that fits the Airman's personality and needs. (A lack of understanding gives leaders less credibility and influence.)
As a counselor and leader, how do you achieve credibility with Airmen?
1) Be honest and consistent in statements and actions; 2) be straightforward; 3) behave in a manner that Airmen respect and trust; and 4) repeatedly demonstrate your willingness to help.
All leaders should develop and improve their counseling skills. Techniques will vary, but should include what three general skills?
1) Active listening - communicate verbally and nonverbally that you've received the message; 2) responding - clarify and confirm what has been said using verbal and nonverbal responses; and 3) questioning - keeping questions open-ended to evoke more that a "yes" or "no" answer.
You can usually categorize developmental counseling based on the session's topic. What are two major categories of counseling?
Event-oriented counseling and performance and professional growth counseling.
What does event-oriented counseling include?
It includes (but is not limited to) counseling for specific instances, crisis counseling and referral counseling.
Counseling for specific instances is tied to episodes of superior or substandard duty performance. What is the key to its success?
Conduct the counseling as close to the event as possible. (Don't forget to acknowledge excellent performance.)
Crisis counseling helps airmen through the initial shock of receiving _____.
Negative news. (Such as the death of a loved one.)
____ counseling helps Airmen work through personal situations and may act as preventative counseling before situations become a problem.
Referral. (The leader helps the Airmen identify the problem and refers the Airman to the appropriate resource, such as legal services, chaplain or an alcohol or drug counselor. It may or may not follow crisis counseling.)
What actions do leaders take during performance and professional growth counseling?
They 1) review the Airman's duty performance during a certain period; 2) set standards for the next period; and 3) focus the session on the Airman's strengths, aread needing improvement and potential.
During counseling, effective leaders approach each Airman as an individual realizing that different people and different situations require different counseling approaches. Name the three major counseling approaches.
1) Nondirective; 2) directive; and 3) combined.
What is the largest difference among the three counseling approaches?
The degree of Airman participation and interaction.
The nondirective counseling approach is preferred for most sessions. What is the counselor's role in this process?
He or she 1) listens rather than makes decisions or gives advice; 2) clarifies what is said; 3) causes the Airman to bring out important points to better understand the situation; 4) summarizes the discussion when appropriate; 5) avoids providing solutions or rendering opinions; 6) maintains a focus on individual and organizations goals and objectives; and 7) ensures the Airman's plan of action supports those goals and objectives.
What are the advantages of the nondirective counseling approach? Its disadvantages?
Advantages - it encourages maturity and open communication and develops personal responsibility. Disadvantages - it is more time consuming and requires the greatest counselor skill.
When counseling approach works best for simple problems, making on-the-spot corrections and correcting aspects of duty performance?
The directive approach. (The leader does most of the talking, tell the Airman what to do and when to do it, and directs a course of action.)
When should you use the directive counseling approach?
When 1) time is short; 2) you alone know what to do; 3) the Airman needs guidance, is immature or insecure, or has limited problem-solving skills.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the directive counseling approach?
Advantages - it is the quickest; good for people who need clear, concise direction; and allows counselors to actively use their experience. Disadvantages - it doesn't encourage Airmen to be part of the solution; may treat symptoms, not problems; may discourage Airmen from talking freely; and the counselor provides the solution instead of the Airman.
The ____ counseling approach uses techniques from the directive and nondirective approaches and adjusts them to the Airman's best interests.
The combined counseling approach emphasizes the Airman's planning and decision-making responsibilities. How does this help the Airman?
It helps him or her 1) develop a plan of action and analyze each possible solution to determine its good and bad points; and 2) fully understanding all aspects of the situation to reach the best solution.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the combined counseling approach?
Advantages - it is moderately quick, encourages maturity and open communication, and allows counselors to actively use their experience. Disadvantages - it may take too much time for some situations.
What are the four stages of the counseling process?
1) Identifying the need for counseling; 2) preparing for counseling; 3) conducting the counseling session; and 4) follow-up.
____ counseling may be necessary if you need focused, two-way communication to develop your Airmen.
What six steps should be taken to prepare for successful counseling?
1) Select a suitable place; 2) schedule the time; 3) notify the Airman well in advance; 4) organize pertinent information; 5) plan the counseling approach; and 6) establish the right atmosphere.
What should you look for when selecting a suitable place for a counseling session?
Choose an environment that minimizes interruptions and is free from distractions
What should you remember when scheduling the time for a counseling session?
The complexity of the issue determines the length of time required, but a session should not exceed one hour. (Schedule a second session if you need more time.)
Why should you notify Airmen well in advance of a counseling session?
So they know why, where and when the session will take place. (Counseling for specific events should happen as close to the event as possible.)
Organize and review all pertinent information before a counseling session, including the purpose of the counseling, facts and observations about the Airman, identification of possible problems, main points of discussion and the development of a plan of action. What should the counselor focus on?
Specific and objective behaviors that the Airman must maintain or improve and a plan of action with clear, obtainable goals.
How should you plan your counseling approach?
There are many approaches to counseling - select a strategy that suits your Airman and the situation.
The right counseling atmosphere promotes two-way communication between the leader and Airman. How can you establish a relaxed atmosphere?
Offer the Airman a seat or something to drink and sit in a chair facing the Airman (since a desk can act as a barrier)
When the purpose of the counseling session is to give specific guidance or to reinforce the leader's rank, position and authority, should the atmosphere be informal or formal?
Be _____ when conducting a counseling session and take advantage of naturally occurring events to provide Airman with feedback.
What are the four basic parts of a counseling session?
1) Opening the session; 2) discussing the issues; 3) developing a plan of action; and 4) recording and closing the session.
What is the best way to open a counseling session?
Clearly state it's purpose. (Establish the preferred early by inviting the Airman to speak.)
When conducting a counseling session, try to develop a mutual understanding of the issues. How can you best accomplish this?
Let the Airman do most of the talking. (Use active listening; respond and question without dominating the conversation.)
What is your role as a counselor when the issue is substandard performance?
Clearly state how the performance specifically didn't meet the standard, then develop a plan of action.
When conducting the counseling session, a plan of action identifies a method for achieving a desired result. What should it specify?
What the Airman must do to reach the goals set during the session. (It must be specific and should show the Airman how to modify or maintain his or her behavior.
As you close the counseling session, _______ the agreed-upon plan of action and the Airman's accomplishments, improvements, personal preferences or problems.
How should you close a counseling session?
1) Summarize key points and ask if the Airman understands the plan of action; 2) invite the Airman to review the plan of action and expectations of the Airman; 3) establish any follow-up measures necessary to support successful plan implementation (provide the Airman with all necessary resources and time, periodically assess the plan and follow through on referrals): and 4) schedule any future meeting (at least tentatively) before dismissing the Airman.
Follow up after the counseling session and continue to support Airmen as they implement the plan of action and evaluate the results. Observe and assess, then modify the plan if necessary. What measures should be taken after counseling?
1) Follow-up counseling; 2) make referrals; 3) inform the chain of command; and 4) take corrective measures.
When leveraging diversity, what challenges does the diversity of talents present to leaders?
Incorporating everyone's specific talents into a cohesive and optimal workforce.
When leveraging diversity, as a supervisor, you cannot control the differing values within your organization. What can you control to create a culture that recognizes and appreciates differing perspectives and promotes respect and inclusion?
Your leadership approach.
When leveraging diversity, leaders must form common ground or a shared set of assumptions within which to communicate. What is this common ground?
The organization itself - the vision, goals, rules, regulations, processes and procedures that govern how the unit accomplishes the mission.
After forming a common ground, what must leaders do to leverage diversity in their organization?
Increase awareness of diversity, acknowledge differences and eliminate stereotypes.
When leveraging diversity, use everyone's unique experiences and background as a(n) _____.
When leveraging diversity, what does diversity of experience and background ensure?
Diverse ways of looking at problems.
What results from properly managing workforce diversity?
Higher productivity, improved performance, more creativity, more innovations and reduced stress.
Emphasizing diversity without threatening unity will strengthen team bonds. How can leaders achieve this?
By integrating sensitivity, mutual respect, common trust and communication.