Flashcards in Section 18B - Physical Fitness and Fitness Components Deck (104):
Why is being physically fit more than just passing the Air Force Fitness Assessment?
Being physically fit ensures every Airman can properly support the Air Force mission while performing at optimal capacity.
The fitness program's goal is to motivate year-round physical conditioning. What does the program emphasize?
Total fitness. (This includes proper aerobic conditioning, muscular, fitness training and healthy eating.)
What the five major components of fitness?
1) Cardiorespiratory endurance; 2) body composition; 3) muscular strength; 40 muscular endurance; and 5) flexibility. (Warm-up and cool-down are also essential components of a complete physical fitness program.)
What is cardiorespiratory endurance?
Sometimes called aerobic fitness, it is the ability to perform large muscle, dynamic, moderate-to-high intensity exercise for prolonged periods.
Body _______ measures your relative amounts of fat and fat-free tissue.
What is muscular strength?
The maximum force generated by a specific muscle or muscle group.
What is muscular endurance?
A muscle group's ability to contract repeatedly over a period of time to cause a muscular fatigue.
_______ is the maximum ability to move a joint freely, without pain, through a range of motion.
What four principles should a successful cardiovascular exercise program employ?
The principles of 1) frequency; 2) intensity; 3) duration; and 4) mode.
Effective cardiorespiratory conditioning is best accomplished with _____ to ______ adequately intense workouts per week.
Three to five
Effective cardiorespiratory conditioning is best accomplished with ____ to ____ adequately intense workouts per week.
Three to five.
Fitness leaders must beware of the dangers of ____ since the risk of injury increases with increasing workout duration and intensity.
Improvements in cardiovascular fitness are directly related to the ____ of the exercise being performed.
What is the minimum training intensity required in an exercise session?
50% of Volume of Oxygen (VO2) max, sometimes referred to as the "training threshold."
Target Heart Rate (THR) corresponds to an intensity sufficient to achieve cardiorespiratory improvement. (T/F)
In cardiovascular training, how do you calculate your Target Heart Rate (THR)?
Subtract your age from 220. Then multiply by .7 to find the bottom THR and by .9 to find the top THR.
A Target Heart Rate (THR) of 70% to 90% of one's theoretical Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) is equivalent to ____ to ____ of one's Volume of Oxygen (VO2) max.
50 to 85%.
____ is the time spend exercising with the most benefit occurring in the Target Heart Rate (THR) zone.
Duration. (The more intense the activity, the short the time needed to produce or maintain the training effect.)
Only sustained activities requiring a large amount of exercise using large muscle groups will improve cardiovascular fitness. Give several examples.
Running, rowing, jogging, vigorous walking, jumping rope, stationary cycling, swimming and stair climbing.
Successful muscular strength and endurance programs employ what five principles?
The principles of 1) specificity; 2) regularity; 3) recovery; 4) balance; and 5) variety.
The principle of ____ dictates you provide resistance to the muscle groups that need to be strengthened.
Specificity. (Strengthening muscles used in work-related movements can improve job performance.)
The principles of specificity states: If an Airman wishes to improve performance for a work-related task, then strengthening the identified muscles will ensure maximum carryover values for his other ____ tasks.
Exercise must be done regularly to produce a training effect. How many workouts per week produce optimal gains in strength?
Three workouts per week.
Can an Airman maintain a moderate level of strength by doing proper strength workouts only once a week?
Yes, for a short period of time, if he or she has already established a strong baseline level of muscular fitness.
An Airman who exercises three times per week achieves optimal muscle strength gains when exercising different muscle groups at each workout. (T/F)
False. (Gains will be minimal as the principal of regularity is violated.)
How many times a week should an Airman exercise the same muscle group?
A minimum of two time per week.
Why should there be at least a 48-hour recovery period between working the same muscle groups?
So the muscles have time to adapt.
Consecutive days of hard resistance training for the same muscle group can be ____.
Detrimental. (Strength training can be done everyday, but only if the muscle groups are rotated so the same muscles are not trained consecutively.)
Normally, the recovery between sets in muscular strength training should be between ____ to ____ seconds.
30 to 180.
The principle of ____ states that a strength-training program should work all major muscle groups in both the upper and lower body.
The principle of balance indicates that you should work opposing muscle groups during strength training. Why?
It ensures good muscle strength and may reduce the risk of injury. (For example, follow an overhead press with a lat. pulldown exercise.)
In a strength-training program, exercises should target larger muscle groups first. (T/F)
True. (If smaller muscle groups are worked first, they will be exhausted and too weak to handle the resistance needed to overload the large muscle groups.)
What is the principle of variety in strength and endurance programs?
Enhance results by using different types of equipment and exercises and altering volume and intensity.
To enhance variety, change your muscular conditioning to ____-resisted exercises or another form of resistance training.
While adding variety to a strength-training program can be beneficial, why should Airmen avoid frequent wholesale changes?
They may become frustrated if they do not have enough time to adapt or see improvements in strength.
Prevent injury and muscle soreness with a good ____ at the beginning and ____ at the end of exercise.
Warm-up and cool down.
During the warm up, perform slow joint rotation exercises. This will help increase the joint's ____ of ____.
Range of motion. (Work each major joint for 5 to 10 seconds.)
The preferred time for flexibility stretching is before the exercise session. (T/F)
False. (Overstretching prior to session can compromise joint integrity.)
When is the best time to improve your flexibility by stretching?
After exercising, when your muscles are warmest.
Hold stretching positions for ____ to ____ seconds during cool-down.
10 to 15 seconds. (Relax the stretch, then repeat for maximum benefit.)
What are the two most important factors in maintaining a positive body composition and losing excessive body fat?
Exercise and diet.
A realistic weight loss goal is one to two pounds a week. How is this best accomplished?
By reducing caloric intake and increasing energy expenditure.
Why is dieting without exercise an ineffective way to lost weight?
Your body may believe it is being starved and attempt to conserve its fat reserves by slowing its metabolism.
Airmen should minimize their daily caloric intake yet consume all major food groups. What is the minimum caloric intake for Airmen not under medical supervision?
At least 1,500 for men or 1,200 for women.
Why don't fad diets and devices or skipping meals produce long-term fat loss?
Most weight lost is water and lean uncle tissue, not fat. (Safely losing fat takes time and patience.)
In addition to burning calories, exercise helps the body maintain muscle mass. (T/F)
True. (It may also keep the body's metabolic rate high.)
____ exercise, which uses lots of oxygen, is the best to burn fat.
Aerobic. (Anaerobic activities like sprinting and lifting heavy weights burn little, if any, fat.)
Why is exercising alone ineffective for weight loss?
Exercise does not burn enough fat on it's own to cause significant weight loss.
What activities are included in a good dynamic warm-up before vigorous exercise?
Airmen should take five to seven minutes slowly 1) jogging or walking; 2) rotating joints; and 3) mimicking the activities to be performed.
Why is it important to slowly return the body to its resting state after exercise?
Stopping suddenly after vigorous exercise can potentially lead to health complications.
How should you cool-down after exercising?
1) Repeat the dynamic warm-up activities; 2) be careful not to overstretch; and 3) hold stretched for 15-30 seconds or more to improve flexibility.
Do not limit ____ training to cool-down periods only.
Flexibility. (Stretching takes very little time relative to the benefits gained and can be done at home or work.)
A job that requires repetitive movements, or is more sedentary, decreases tension in specific muscle groups. (T/F)
False. (Tension increases in the specific muscle groups and mild stretching throughout the day can help.)
Commander-driven physical fitness training is the backbone of the Air Force physical fitness program. What does it promote?
1) Aerobic and muscular fitness; 2) flexibility; and 3) optimal body composition.
____ is crucial during PT and testing.
A PT program must exceed members' current fitness level to encourage and promote progress t a higher one. (T/F)
False. (The PT program must meet members' current fitness level.)
How is the PT program's effectiveness measured?
With the 1) 1.5 mile timed run; 2) 1-mile walk; 3) Abdominal Circumference (AC); 4) pushup and sit-up tests. (Do not limit training to these tests.)
The unit fitness program develops general fitness, prevents ____ and decreases repetitive strain injuries.
How can the unit PT program ensure a safe training environment?
By assessing 1) traffic patterns; 2) temperature; 3) water availability; 4) first aid availability; 5) awareness of emergency procedures; 6) individual medical limitations and ability levels; and 7) use of headphones or other personal equipment.
What are the three components of the composite fitness score, used to determine overall fitness based on?
1) Aerobic fitness; 2) muscular strength/endurance; and 3) body composition using the Abdominal Circumference (AC) measurements.
A composite fitness score of ____, in addition to meeting the minimum component score, represents the minimum acceptable health, fitness and readiness level.
75 or greater. (Though health and readiness benefits continue to accrue with increasing fitness levels.)
____ -and gender specific fitness score charts are provided in AFI 36-2905, Fitness Program.
Scoring the minimum component values in all components will generate enough points to earn a composite score of 75 or greater. (T/F)
False. (The minimum components are established to ensure members avoid "asymmetrical fitness.")
The fitness composite score (ranging from 0 to 100) is calculated from what four component scores?
1) Aerobic Fitness Assessment (FA) (60 points maximum); 2) body composition (20 points maximum); 3) pushups (10 points maximum); and 4) sit-ups (10 points maximum).
How do you calculate a member's fitness composite score when their medical profile prohibits them from completing one or more of the fitness test components?
Based on the remaining components. (Multiply total component points by 100, then divide by total possible points.)
Members complete a composite Fitness Assessment (FA) every three months. (T/F)
False. (They must complete it biannually.)
____ to the composite Fitness Assessment (FA) temporarily categorize members as unable or unavailable to train or test for reasons beyond their or their commanders control.
Who grants PT component exemptions based on medical recommendations?
The commander, in consultation with the Exercise Physiologist/Fitness Program Managers (EP/FPM).
How do increased fitness levels optimize performance in deployed environment?
They allow Airmen to tolerate extremes in temperature, fatigue and stress.
Identify the four fitness levels and the score range for each.
1) Excellent (all four components) - composite score equals or exceeds 90; 20 Excellent (three or less components) - composite score equals or exceeds 90; 3) Satisfactory - composite score between 75 and 89.99; and 5) Unsatisfactory - composite score below 75 and/or one component minimum not met.
When do Airmen who receive an excellent in all four components retest?
Within 12 months.
When do Airmen with unsatisfactory fitness levels retest?
Within 90 days of their initial assessment.
Members must have a current fitness score on file before deployment. (T/F)
When is the only time "exempt" should be marked on an Airmen's Fitness Assessment (FA)?
The Airman's current FA expires while deployed where testing is not possible or did not volunteer to test at a locate where FAs are available.
Any Fitness Assessment (FA) ____ is annotated in the Air Force Fitness Management System (AFFMS) and considered against the Airman.
Airmen who reach ____ days after receiving an Unsatisfactory Fitness Assessment (FA) score, but before the evaluation closes out, will no longer have a current evaluation and will be marked "exempt."
What is marked on the Fitness Assessment (FA) if an Airman has a current/passing score before deploying and his or her evaluation closes out after the deployment starts?
Deployed Airmen with Satisfactory or Excellent scores become "exempt" when they reach the ____ day of the month, seven/thirteen calendar months following the previous official Fitness Assessment (FA) rating.
Who appoints PT Leaders (PTL) to augment the Fitness Assessment Cell (FAC)?
Unit Commanders. (Installations develop a local Fitness Assessment (FA) plan that is signed by the installation commander.)
Fitness Assessment Cell (FAC) augmentees conduct the Fitness Assessments (FA), but do not test members from their own unit. (T/F)
The Fitness Assessment Cell (FAC) will conduct the Fitness Assessment (FA) for all Airmen. If no FAC exists, who should conduct the FA?
A certified PT Leader (PTL) from another unit.
The Fitness Screening Questionnaire (FSQ) should be completed no earlier than ____ calendar days, or ____ days for Air Reserve Component (ARC), but no later than 7 days prior to Fitness Assessment (FA)
Failure to complete the Fitness Screening Questionnaire (FSQ) invalidates the Fitness Assessment (FA). (T/F)
Medical providers may recommend ____ exemptions from specific physical conditioning programs or a component of the Fitness Assessment (FA).
Pregnant members will engage in PT and receive nutrition counseling throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period. However, they are exempt from fitness testing during pregnant and for ____ days after delivery.
All Fitness Assessment (FA) test components must be completed within a 3-hour window on the same day or within ____ duty days in extenuating circumstances.
Five duty days.
Assess muscular fitness after the 1-mile walk, resting at least ____ minutes between components.
Three minutes. (The 1.5 mile run can be done before or after the muscular fitness components.)
Schedule Fitness Assessment (FA) components to allow adequate ____ for members with irregular or shift work hours.
Which component of the Fitness Assessment (FA) must be assessed first?
The body composition component.
What does the body composition assessment measure?
Your height, weight, and Abdominal Circumference (AC).
Where will Fitness Assessment Cell (FAC) members or trained augmentees take the Abdominal Circumference (AC) measurement?
In a private room or partitioned area.
The ____ assessment is a 1.5 mile timed run or, if medically exempt, 1-mile walk.
Aerobic. (1-mile walk is the only authorized alternate assessment for Regular Air Force or Air Reserve Component (ARC) members.)
How are upper body and abdominal muscular strength/endurance measured?
With a one-minute timed pushup test for the upper body and a one-minute timed sit-up test for the abdominals.
Physical fitness education will be incorporated into training programs and unit PT. (T/F)
Ongoing ____ emphasis and a supportive environment are essential to maintaining force health and fitness.
What program is managed by the Health and Wellness Center (HAWC) and is mandatory for all Air Force members with an unsatisfactory score?
The Balanced Eating, Work OUt Effectively, Living Longer (BE WELL) Program.
The installation ____ must promote a healthy lifestyle and optimal nutrition, body composition and fitness for all members.
Who makes the unit PT program a success?
The unit commander, Unit Fitness Program Manager (UPFM), PT Leader (PTL), immediate supervisor and each individual.
What is the unit commander's role in the PT program?
He or she 1) promotes, supports and ensures the integrity of the fitness program; and 2) provides an environment conducive to healthy lifestyle choices; 3) encourages participation in physical fitness during the duty day; and 4) implements and maintains the PT program.
What is the Unit Fitness Program Manager's (UFPM) role in the PT program?
To 1) oversee the administration of the unit fitness program; 2) notify the unit commander of members who fail to attend scheduled fitness appointments; and 3) provide monthly fitness metrics and unit status reports to the unit commander.
How frequently does the PT Leader (PTL) attend a PTL refresher course?
Annually, or upon change in duty station.
Air Reserve Component (ARC) PT Leaders (PTL) receive initial and refresher training from Regular Air Force Exercise Physiologist/Fitness Program Managers (EP/FPM) at co-located bases. How do ARC PTLs complete training when in-person training is not feasible?
They complete distance learning truing, coordinated through Air Force Medical Operations Agency and the supporting base EP/FPM.
The PT Leaders (PTL) must complete Basic Life Support (BLS) and Automated External Defibrillator (AED) training prior to attending the PTL certification course. (T/F)
True. (They must maintain currency while serving as PTLs.)