Section 13D - Problem Solving Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 13D - Problem Solving Deck (74):
1

What service-wide initiative shapes the mindset and behaviors of all Airmen to one of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) to eliminate waste from every end-to-end process?

Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century (AFSO21)

2

There are always ways to improve any process. (T/F)

True. (Everyone should continually strive to make those improvements.)

3

How many steps are in the problem-solving process at the core of Air Force Continuous Process Improvement (CPI)?

Eight.

4

Rigorously apply-the eight-step problem solving model to eliminate waste in everyday work and to close ____ in process.

Performance gaps.

5

Why do process improvement efforts require a non-blaming approach?

Because people are not to blame for inefficient processes, and they can best identify barriers in their day-to-day jobs. (They must identify, acknowledge and resolve problems, not hide them.)

6

Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century (AFSO21) breaks the four ____ loop steps into eight flexible steps that are effective at any level - Air Force, MAJCOM, wing or individual.

OODA. (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act.)

7

List the tasks in the eight-step problem-solving process.

1) clarify and validate the problem; 2) break down the problem and identify performance gaps; 3) set improvement targets; 4) determine root causes; 5) develop countermeasures; 6) see countermeasures through; 7) confirm results and process; and 8) standardize successful process.

8

Which Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) loop set includes only one of the eight steps in the problem-solving process?

Decide. (It includes Step 5.)

9

Which Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) loop set includes three of the eight steps in the problem-solving process?

Act. (It includes Steps 6, 7, and 8.)

10

Airmen must both identify a problem and understand why there is a problem for Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) to work. (T/F)

True. (Find the root cause.)

11

the eight steps problem-solving process provides a concise, common format to do what three tasks?

To 1) present information; 2) ease benchmarking; and 3) share best practices.

12

List the five lean tools you can use to decide which problems to tackle during Step 1 of the problem-solving process.

1) Strategic Alignment and Deployment (SA&D); 2) Suppliers, Inputs, Outputs and Customers (SIPOC) analysis; 3) Voice of the Customer; 4) Value Stream Mapping; and 5) Go and See.

13

Which lean tool used in Step 1 of the problem-solving process ensures resources and activities are linked to key strategies, directives and goals?

Strategic Alignment and Deployment (SA&D).

14

Which lean tool, used in Step 1 of the problem-solving process, provides a visual representation of a high-level process map?

Suppliers, Inputs, Outputs and Customers (SIPOC) analysis.

15

How does the Suppliers, Inputs, Outputs and Customers (SIPOC) analysis tool used in Step 1 of the problem-solving process help teams?

It helps develop the scope of the process, including start and end points.

16

What is the bottom-line expectation for Step 1 of the problem-solving process?

Exclude all opinions, solutions or root causes and answer the questions: 1) What is happening? 2) Where is it happening? 3) When is it happening? 4) Who or what is being impacted?

17

When problem-solving, what sole entity defines value for a process?

The customers. (Determine who they are, what they need and whether you are meeting their needs.)

18

During Step 1 of the problem-solving process, which tool helps define customers and what they need?

Voice of the Customer.

19

Define Value Stream Mapping as used in Step 1 of the eight-step problem-solving process.

The tool used to give an overview of the process at any level, to determine areas of needed focus.

20

In Step 1 of the problem-solving process, which tool provides first-hand data by actually walking through the process or problem area?

Go and See.

21

Define Step 2 in the eight-step problem-solving process.

Break down problem and identify performance gaps.

22

During Step 2 of the problem-solving process, which two lean tools help you understand what data you need and what it means?

1) Performance gap analysis; and 2) bottleneck analysis (or constraint analysis).

23

What is the bottom-line expectation for Step 2 of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Provide data on the performance gap to show the difference between performance and customer expectation.

24

Who sets improvement targets during Step 3 of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Process owners and/or project sponsors.

25

What tools help set improvement targets during Step 3 of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Future state mapping and Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-focused, Time-bound (SMART) targets.

26

The bottom-line expectation for Step 3 of the eight-step problem-solving process is to develop a ______.

Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-focused, Time-bound (SMART) target.

27

In the problem-solving process, improvement targets define the ______ levels required to make an organization's vision a reality.

Performance levels. (They should be challenging, but achievable.)

28

What does the acronym SMART represent in the eight-step problem-solving process?

Improvement targets should be Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-focused, Time-bound.

29

When setting Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-focused, Time-bound (SMART) targets, what makes a target specific?

Desirable outputs based on Subject Matter Expert (SME) knowledge and experience that are applicable to the process improvement activity.

30

In Step 3 of the eight-step problem-solving process, what does the measurable Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-focused, Time-bound (SMART) target include?

Time frames and data obtainable from specific sources.

31

When setting Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-focused, Time-bound (SMART) targets, resources must be available for the goal to be attainable and the goal should be risk-free. T/F

False. (It can have some risk, but success must be possible.)

32

When setting SMART targets, results-focused targets should be linked to the mission, vision and goals. What else should they be?

They should be meaningful to the user.

33

When setting SMART targets, should you provide step-by-step views or take a much broader view with fewer measurements?

Step-by-step views.

34

What is the bottom-line expectation for Step 4 of the problem-solving process?

Use one of the six root cause analysis tools to enable a credible cause-and-effect relationship to the problem.

35

List the six tools used to identify true root causes during Step 4 of the eight-step problem-solving process.

1) 5 Whys; 2) brainstorming; 3) Pareto analysis; 4) affinity diagrams; 5) cause and effort diagrams; and 6) control charts.

36

When determining the root cause of a problem, describe how you use the 5 Whys tool.

When you think you understand the cause of the problem, ask "why" five times.

37

A cross-functional team that works in the problem area almost always knows the root cause of the problem, but they do not realize it at the time. Which tool helps?

Brainstorming. (Suggest as many ideas as possible.)

38

Which tool identifies the root cause of a problem by objectively graphing data to reveal the critical 20 percent of inputs that cause 80 percent of the problem?

Pareto analysis.

39

How do affinity diagrams help determine the root cause of a problem?

They group like items to simplify the problem.

40

Which problem-solving tool visually depicts the relationship between input categories and undesirable outputs to determine the root cause of a problem?

Cause and effect diagrams.

41

When using control charts to determine the root cause f a problem, should you predefine upper and lower performance level limits?

Yes. (These charts objectively graph process output over time.)

42

Which should be the easiest step in the eight-step problem-solving process?

Step 5: Develop countermeasures (Decide). (If the first four steps are done correctly.)

43

What two things determine the strength of a solution's impact on a problem?

1) The quality of the solution; and 2) how it is accepted by those who must implement it.

44

What formula represents the impact of a solution?

(Quality of the solution) + (acceptance) = impact

45

An excellent solution to a problem can have zero impact. T/F

True. (If it receives no support.)

46

Describe how a leader can present the solution to a problem so that it's accepted by those who must implement it.

1) Select the most practical and effective countermeasures; 2) keep it simple; 3) build consensus by involving all stakeholders; and 4) develop a sense of ownership.

47

What is the bottom-line expectation for Step 5 (Develop countermeasures) of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Ensure the desired countermeasures address root causes and are prioritized to enable implementation.

48

In Step 6 (See countermeasures through) of the eight-step problem-solving process, what three key questions must a leader answer before addressing a problem?

1) Which Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) method best fits my situation?; 2) What is the best setting to implement my solution?; and 3) Which CPI tools are most appropriate?

49

What does an action plan waste if there is no action?

Time and resources.

50

When problem-solving, each solution must draw only from one of the four major Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) methods. T/F

False. (Solutions may draw from more than one.)

51

In Step 6 (See countermeasures through) of the eight-step problem-solving process, what is the largest factor in determine the most appropriate setting?

The scope of effort required.

52

Which setting is best for a solution to a problem that involves one person or a small team, and can be done in less than one day?

Just Do It. (Also called point improvement.)

53

Describe the team and timeline that would require a Rapid Improvement Even (RIE) setting to solve a problem.

A small team of individuals, usually SMEs, and the task can be accomplished within a week. RIEs bring together cross-functional teams who work to improve a specific aspect.

54

Which setting is best for a solution that requires a large team and a long period of time?

Improvement project.

55

Before acting to solve a problem, select a lean process improvement tool based on how well it addresses the ______ ______ identified in Step 4.

Root causes.

56

List the five most applicable lean process improvement tools used in Step 6 (See countermeasures through) of the eight-step problem-solving process.

1) Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain, Safety (6-S) and visual management; 2) standard work; 3) cell design; 4) error proofing; and 5) training.

57

Which lean process improvement tool sets a place for everything and shows when they are not in place?

Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain, Safety (6-S) and visual management.

58

Which lean process improvement tool is the bedrock of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI), used to determine if improvements are due to chance of deliberate efforts?

Standard work.

59

Designing how to arrange workers relative to the work and to each other is called ______ design, a lean process improvement tool.

Cell design.

60

Which lean process improvement tool makes it impossible to do something wrong?

Error proofing.

61

In the problem-solving process, training is almost always required and is usually necessary at different levels simultaneously. T/F

True. (Process customers and suppliers may also need training.)

62

What is the bottom-line expectation for Step 6 (See countermeasures through) of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Develop a detailed implementation plan for each countermeasure that includes a Point of Contact (POC), status and expected completion date.

63

In Step 7 (Confirm results and process) of the eight-step problem-solving process, why should leaders compare countermeasures results to performance gaps and improvements targets?

To ensure the process is sustainable, repeatable and meets mission requirements.

64

In Step 7 (Confirm results and process) of the eight-step problem-solving process, leaders should monitor projects for performance relative to what three things?

1) The baseline developed in Steps 1 and 2; 2) SMART targets established in Step 3; and 3) where you planned to be at this stage.

65

What should leaders consider doing if they find target deadlines are not being met in Step 7 (Confirm results and process) of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Evaluate whether to return to Step 4: Determine root causes.

66

What is the most common mistake made by Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) efforts?

Incorrectly determine the root causes of the problem.

67

The bottom-line expectation for Step 7 (Confirm results and process) of the eight-step problem-solving process is to answer three basic questions. What are they?

1) Was the Step 3 target achieved? 2) Was the Step 2 performance gap closed? 3) Was the Step 1 problem addressed?

68

Which is the most commonly skipped and under-completed step in the eight-step problem-solving process?

Step 8: Standardize successful processes (Act)

69

Answering which three questions can help define Step 8 (Standardize successful processes) in the problem-solving process?

1) What is needed to standardize the improvements?; 2) How should improvements and lessons learned be communicated?; and 3) Were other opportunities or problems identified by the problem-solving process?

70

List the six ways that improvements and lessons learned the problem-solving process should be communicated.

1) The Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) Management Tool; 2) key meetings; 3) Air Force publications; 4) message traffic; 5) chain of command; or 6) communities of practice.

71

Following all steps in the problem-solving process ensures desired results that are aligned with the organization's needs and are achieved with an absolute minimum of wasted effort. T/F

True. (This increases Air Force combat effectiveness.)

72

The ______ loop is infinite; restart it and follow the Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) process to solve other problems as they are identified.

Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) loop.

73

What is the bottom-line expectation for Step 8 (Standardize successful processes) of the eight-step problem-solving process?

Implement standard work, codify and share the improvement, and leave a performance measure in place.

74

Which three processes combine to create a simple, thorough process improvement method that is flexible enough to be effective at any level?

The 1) Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) loop; 2) Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century (AFSO21) tools; and 3) eight-step problem-solving process.

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