September 1, 2015 - Heme Flipped Classroom 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in September 1, 2015 - Heme Flipped Classroom 1 Deck (14):
1

Primary Hemostasis

Part of the process of blood clot formation.

Involves the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of platelets combined with von Willebrand factor to produce a temporary platelet plug.

2

Secondary Hemostasis

Part of the blood clot formation process.

Activation of coagulation factors (extrinsic, intrinsic, and common pathways) to produce a stable fibrin clot.

3

Regulation of Coagulation System

The coagulation system and clot production is regulated by the anticoagulation system (Tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, Protein C and Protein S)

4

Fibrinolytic System

Composed of plasminogen and t-PA.

Removes unwanted fibrin clots and restores blood vessel patency once the vascular injury has healed.

5

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

ITP is an autoimmune disease which antibodies detectable against platelet surface antigens. May be acute, or chronic.

Treatment is steroids.

6

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

Exposure to heparin within the past 5-10 days causes antibodies to attack platelets.

7

Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia

Failure of platelet aggregation because of a lack of membrane receptors GPIIb/IIIa.

In the presence of normal plasma levels of fibrinogen, they have a decreased aggregation of platelets to each other (prolonged bleeding time / closure time).

8

Bernard Soulier Syndrome

A congenital platelet with adhesion defects.

Platelets lack membrane receptors (GP1b) for von Willebrand factor. In the presence of normal plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, there is a decreased adhesion of platelets to subendothelium (prolonged bleeding / closure time).

9

Platelet Function Defects - Congenital

These are rare, but should be considered.

 

Most platelet function defects are commonly acquired due to medication effects.

10

Vitamin K Deficiency

Can be a cause of an elevated PT.

11

Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn

A disease caused by insufficient Vitamin K in newborns.

12

PT Test

Used to assess Factor VII (extrinsic pathway) and Factors II, V, X and Fibrinogen (common pathway)

Major causes of an isolated PT include Factor VII deficiency and warfarin therapy. 

13

VWD

Type 1 VWD - Equal reductions in VWF Activity and VWF Antigen. FVIII may be normal or low.

 

Type 2 VWD - Greater reduction in VWF activity when compared with the reduction in VWF antigen (ratio of VWF activity to antigen <0.5-0.7). Factor VIII may be normal or low.

 

Type 3 VWD - Extremely low or undetectable levels of VWF antigen and activity. FVIII often <10% of normal.

14

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