September 30, 2015 - Pathogens in Immunocompromised Hosts Flashcards Preview

COURSE 1 > September 30, 2015 - Pathogens in Immunocompromised Hosts > Flashcards

Flashcards in September 30, 2015 - Pathogens in Immunocompromised Hosts Deck (12):
1

When to Suspect Immunosuppression

1. Prolonged course (relapse/recurrence)

2. Unusual organism or infection site

3. Severity is greater than expected

2

Phagocytic Deficits

An innate immunodeficiency.

Clinically, shows infection of recurrent abscesses with catalase positive organisms.

Common organisms for infection include S. aureus, Nocardia, and Aspergillus.

3

Complement Deficits

A defecit in the innate immune system.

Often leads to recurrent Neisseria infections such as meningitis.

4

B-Cell / Immunoglobulin Deficits

A defect in the acquired/humoral immune system.

Clinically, leads to recurrent infections (often in lungs) by encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae

5

T Cell Deficits

A defect in the acquired/cell-mediated immune system.

Leads to recurrent or opportunistic infections by many opportunistic organisms, particularly fungus and protozoa, along with viruses.

Think HIV.

6

Different from "Normal" Host

- Signs of inflammation are diminished. This includes no pus.

- Dual infections are common

- Lots of infectious overlap with different deficiencies

- Prophylaxis often required

- Treatment is often empiric (at least initially)

7

Targets of Corticosteroids

1. Innate (leukocyte migration)

2. Humoral (decreased B cell function)

3. Cell mediated (decreased cytokine and T-cell function)

8

Septra

A combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Targets DNA synthesis of both aerobic (trimethoprim) and anaerobic (sulfamethoxazole) bacteria.

9

Common Encapulated Organisms

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Neisseria meningitiditis

Haemophilus influenzae

10

Chemotherapy and Immune Deficiency

Can cause febrile neutropenia.

Need to put patients on prophalactic antibiotics.

11

Febrile Neutropenia

Often a complication of chemotherapy when it is myelosuppressive.

This is a medical emergency and you must go to the hospital ASAP.

12

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