Test 2 - Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 - Chapter 7 Deck (64):
1

DNA is composed of four kinds of _________

nucleotides

2

DNA is composed of four kinds of nucleotides, each consisting of :
-
-

-Deoxyribose
-Thymine

3

-DNA-

Adenine & Guanine are _________ ringed molecules

double

4

-DNA-

Four _________ bases that make up a DNA molecule differ in the amount of each base from _________

-nucleotide
-species to species

5

-DNA-

The amount of Adenine (A) equals the amount of _________

Thymine (T)

6

-DNA-

The amount of Thymine (T) equals the amount of _________

Adenine (A)

7

-DNA-

The amount of Guanine (G) equals the amount of _________

Cytosine (C)

8

-DNA-

The amount of Cytosine (C) equals the amount of _________

Guanine (G)

9

-DNA-

Single-ringed Thymine is hydrogen bonded with a double ringed _________

Adenine

10

-DNA-

Single-ringed Cytosine is hydrogen bonded with a double ringed _________

Guanine

11

-DNA-

The backbone of the molecule is made of chains of sugar-_________ linkages

phosphate

12

-DNA-

The molecule is double stranded and looks like a ladder with a twist to form a _________

double helix

13

-DNA-

The molecule is _________ and looks like a ladder with a twist to form a double helix

double stranded

14

-DNA-

The base pairing is constant for all species but the sequence of base pairs in a nucleotide strand is different from one _________ to another.

species

15

DNA Replication (DNA is replicated only for the cell to _________ )

divide

16

-Assembly of the nucleotide Strand-

The two strands of the DNA _________ and the _________ bonds that hold the two cells together are broken

-unwind
-hydrogen

17

-Assembly of the nucleotide Strand-

Next unattached _________ will pair with the exposed bases

nucleotides

18

-DNA Replication-
--Assembly of the nucleotide Strand

(A) bonds to (__)

T

19

-DNA Replication-
--Assembly of the nucleotide Strand

(C) bonds to (__)

G

20

Semiconservative Replication - Describes how the old is conserved into the new _________

generation

21

-Enzymes for replication-

DNA _________ - used to unwind the DNA

Helicase

22

-Enzymes for replication-

DNA _________ - puts the correct nucleotide in place

Polymerase

23

-Enzymes for replication-

DNA _________ - Reads the DNA to make sure there are no errors

Ligase

24

-DNA and Genes-

DNA, _________ , and genes are all referring to the same things

chromosomes

25

-DNA and Genes-

_________ is a linear stretch of DNA that codes for the assembly of amino acids into proteins

Gene

26

-DNA and Genes-

_________ are a sequence of amino acids that are used as structural components in cells or as molecules to help chemical reactions

Proteins

27

-From genes to Protein Production-

_________ - reading DNA to produce RNA

Transcription

28

-From genes to Protein Production-

Transcription happens in the _________

nucleus

29

-From genes to Protein Production-

_________ - using RNA to produce a protein

Translation

30

-From genes to Protein Production-

Translation happens in the _________

ribosome

31

-Types of RNA-

_________ RNA (mRNA)

Messenger

32

-Types of RNA-

_________
-Carries the blueprint for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

33

Messenger RNA (mRNA)
-Carries the blueprint for making _________ from the nucleus to the _________

-proteins
-ribosomes

34

_________
-Combines with proteins already made to form ribosome

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

35

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
-Combines with _________ already made to form _________

-proteins
-ribosome

36

_________
-Carries the correct amino acid to the ribosome and pairs up with the messenger RNA in order to make a protein

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

37

Transfer RNA (tRNA)
-Carries the correct amino acid to the _________ and pairs up with the messenger RNA in order to make a _________

-ribosome
-protein

38

DNA is _________ stranded,
RNA is _________ stranded

-double
-single

39

There are different _________ between DNA & RNA

sugars

40

DNA has _________ as a base, RNA has Uracil as a base

Thymine

41

DNA has Thymine as a base, RNA has _________ as a base

Uracil

42

-mRNA to a Protein-

Newly formed _________ is an unfinished molecule and it is not ready for use

mRNA

43

-mRNA to a Protein-

The mRNA is modified before it leaves the _________

nucleus

44

-mRNA to a Protein-

_________ - Non-coding portions, these are cut out before the mRNA leaves the nucleus (Enzymes are required to remove Introns)

Introns

45

-mRNA to a Protein-

_________ - The actual coding portion of the mRNA are spliced together to produce a complete mRNA ready for translation

Exons

46

Every three bases (triplet) on the mRNA specifies for an _________

amino acid

47

The complete set of triplets is called the _________

genetic code

48

Each base triplet is called a _________

Codon

49

_________ (Methionine) is the start codon

AUG

50

[______ = an Amino acid]

AUG

51

The Anticodon is found on the _________

tRNA

52

Each _________ carries one specific Amino Acid

tRNA

53

Once the mRNA is at the ribosome, the site of _________, the anticodon of the tRNA bonds to the codon on the mRNA

translation

54

Once the mRNA is at the ribosome, the site of translation, the _________ of the tRNA bonds to the codon on the mRNA

anticodon

55

There are ___ different amino acids

20

56

Long sequences of amino acids are _________

protein

57

When the _________ is read, no amino acids are put into place until the _________ (start) codon is read

-mRNA
-AUG

58

Once the AUG is read, the amino acid _________ is put into place

methionine

59

Any codons that come before the AUG codon are _________ and do not call for any amino acids

meaningless

60

_________ takes place after AUG

Elongation

61

For every codon after the AUG, the correct amino acid is brought by a _________ and put into place

tRNA

62

As new amino acids are brought into position, they become _________ to the previous amino acid that was already in place

bonded

63

When one of the _________ stop codons is reached the process will _________

-three
-discontinue

64

Once a stop codon is reached there can be another AUG (start), which will be the _________ of another amino acid sequence

beginning