Test 3 - Topic 17 Flashcards Preview

Biology 107 > Test 3 - Topic 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 - Topic 17 Deck (129):
1

_________ - The study of the nature of behaviors and its ecological and evolutionary significance in natural settings

Ethology

2

Ethology - The study of the nature of behaviors and its _________ and evolutionary significance in _________ settings

-ecological
-natural

3

_________ - Giving human feelings, meanings, and emotions to the behaviors of non-human animals

Anthropomorphism

4

Anthropomorphism - Giving human feelings, _________, and emotions to the behaviors of _________ animals

-meanings
-non-human

5

_________ - How an organism acts

Behavior

6

_________ Behavior - (inherited, can not be learned)

Heritable

7

_________ behavior - Involves the coordinated response to external and internal stimuli using interactions among the nervous endocrine (hormone) and skeletal muscular systems.

Genetic based

8

Genetic based behavior - Involves the coordinated response to external and internal _________ using interactions among the nervous _________ (hormone) and skeletal muscular systems.

-stimuli
-endocrine

9

Genetic based behavior -
-Your _________ contribute to the behaviors by _________ how these systems work

-genes
-influencing

10

_________ Behavior - Where components of the nervous system allow an animal to accomplish complex stereo-typed responses to certain environmental cue

Instinctive

11

Instinctive Behavior - Where components of the nervous system allow an _________ to accomplish complex stereo-typed responses to certain environmental _________

-animal
-cues

12

_________ Behavior incorporates information that has been gained from specific experiences (_________ by doing, watching, or listening)

-Learned
-learned

13

-Categories of learned behavior-

_________ - i.e. Pavlov's Dog - Where an animal learns to associate a stimulus with food and later salivates at the sound without the food being present

Classical Conditioning

14

-Categories of learned behavior-

Classical Conditioning - i.e. Pavlov's Dog - Where an animal learns to associate a _________ with food and later salivates at the sound _________ the food being present

-stimulus
-without

15

-Categories of learned behavior-

_________ - i.e. Invisible Fence - Where an animal learns to associate a voluntary activity with a consequence

Operant Conditioning

16

-Categories of learned behavior-

Operant Conditioning - i.e. Invisible Fence - Where an animal learns to _________ a voluntary activity with a _________

-associate
-consequence

17

-Categories of learned behavior-

_________ - i.e. when an organism learns migration routes - Where an animal learns a mental map of region

Spatial or Latent Learning

18

-Categories of learned behavior-

Spatial or Latent Learning - i.e. when an organism learns _________ routes - Where an animal learns a mental _________ of region

-migration
-map

19

-Categories of learned behavior-

_________ - Where an animal learns how to solve a problem without any trial and error attempts at a solution

Insight Learning

20

-Categories of learned behavior-

Insight Learning - Where an animal learns how to solve a problem _________ any trial and error attempts at a _________

-without
-solution

21

_________ - Some behaviors promote survival while other behaviors don't

Natural selection

22

_________ - Some behaviors promote reproductive success while other don't

Reproductive success

23

_________ - Behaviors that allow an individual to adapt will promote survival

Adaptive Behavior

24

_________ - Cooperative interdependent relationships among individuals of the same species

Social Behavior

25

_________ - When an individual increases it's chance of reproducing at the cost of others

Selfish Behavior

26

_________ - Self sacrificing behaviors that help others reproduce

Altruistic Behavior

27

-Communication Signals-

_________ - Hearing sounds (Vocally, slapping water, stomping ground)

Acoustical signals

28

-Communication Signals-

_________ - Chemicals released into the environment to signal members of the same species (dog peeing)

Pheromones

29

-Communication Signals-

_________ - Sight (Colored feathers, dances, show teeth, Fireflies light up)

Visual signals

30

-Communication Signals-

_________ - Touch (bees waggle dance)

Tactile signals

31

-Mating Behavior-

_________ - The competition for access to a mate and also the choosiness in selecting a mate

Sexual Selection

32

-Mating Behavior-

Reproductive success for _________ - Depends on how many eggs he can fertilize

a male

33

-Mating Behavior-

Reproductive success for _________ - Depends on the quality of the mate not the quantity

females

34

Reproductive success for females - Depends on the _________ of the mate not the _________

-quality
-quantity

35

Reproductive success for a male - Depends on how many _________ he can fertilize

eggs

36

-Costs and Benefits of Parenting-

1. Parental care requires _________ and _________ (Cost)
2. The benefits of parenting is an increase of offspring survival
3..The benefits out way the cost

-time
-energy

37

-Costs and Benefits of Parenting-

1. Parental care requires time and energy (Cost)
2. The benefits of _________ is an increase of _________ survival
3..The benefits out way the cost

-parenting
-offspring

38

-Costs and Benefits of Parenting-

1. Parental care requires time and energy (Cost)
2. The benefits of parenting is an increase of offspring survival
3..The benefits out way the _________

cost

39

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Disadvantage of a society

1. Resource _________
2. It's easier to spread contagious diseases
3. Increase in cannibalism

competition

40

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Disadvantage of a society

1. Resource competition
2. It's easier to spread _________ diseases
3. Increase in cannibalism

contagious

41

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Disadvantage of a society

1. Resource competition
2. It's easier to spread contagious diseases
3. Increase in _________

cannibalism

42

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Advantages of a Society

1. _________

- More eyes to see the predator
- Many social prey animals engage in counter attacks against the predator
-Better odds of not being eaten due to a greater number of animals

Cooperative Predator Avoidance

43

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Advantages of a Society

Cooperative Predator Avoidance

- More eyes to see the _________
- Many social prey animals engage in _________ attacks against the predator
-Better odds of not being eaten due to a greater number of _________

-predator
-counter
-animals

44

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Advantages of a Society

_________ -

This is where some individuals of a herd use the other members of the herd to shield themselves from a predator

Selfish Herd

45

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Advantages of a Society

Selfish Herd -

This is where some individuals of a herd use the other _________ of the herd to shield themselves from a _________

-members
-predator

46

-Cost and benefits of Belonging to a Social Group-
--Advantages of a Society

_________ -

A large, dominant gazelle stays in the middle of his territory. With him will be his harem that he protects and mates with.

Selfish Herd

47

_________ -
Where individuals adapt a subordinate status in order to increase the survival of others

Dominance Hierarchies

48

_________ (pecking order)

Dominance Hierarchies

49

Dominance Hierarchies (pecking order) - Where individuals adapt a _________ status in order to increase the _________ of others

-subordinate
-survival

50

_________ - An area occupied by an individual or group of individuals where they exclude others of the same species

Territory

51

Territory - An area occupied by an individual or group of individuals where they _________ others of the same _________

-exclude
-species

52

Animals defend _________ - To protect resources, offspring, and mates

territories

53

Animals defend territories - To protect resources, _________, and mates

offspring

54

Do animals have conscience thought?
Right now the evidence points to _________. Some evidence points to possibility in _________ and chimpanzees

-NO
-dolphins

55

_____ _____ is the movement of genes from one generation to the next as a result of reproduction or from one region to another by migration.

Gene flow

56

2. A(n) _____ is any remains of an organism of a past geologic age, such as a preserved skeleton or body imprint.

fossil

57

3. Which of the following steps are not necessary for speciation to occur?
a. geographic isolation b. genetic divergence
c. reproductive isolation d. hybrid viability

d

58

4. The _____ of an organism is the geographic area over which a species can be found.
a. range
b. region
c. pasture
d. geographic location

a

59

5. If individuals from separate populations overcome the geographic barrier, they may not have accumulated enough _____ to prevent reproductive success.
a. mutations
b. genetic differences c. barriers
d. sexual differences

b

60

6. is a condition of having multiple sets of chromosomes, rather than the normal haploid or diploid number.

Polyploidy

61

7. Differences in the time of the year at which reproduction takes place are called
a. geographic isolating mechanisms. b. hybrid isolating mechanisms.
c. seasonal isolating mechanisms.
d. physical isolating mechanisms.

c

62

8. A _____ is a group of organisms that shares a common ancestor with other species, but is set off from those others by having newer, genetically unique traits.

Species

63

9. The term _____ is now used to refer to humans and their
humanlike ancestors. a. hominid
b. anthropoid
c. hominoid
d. hominin

d

64

10. The scientific name for modern human beings is
a. Homo habilis.
b. Homo neanderthalensis. c. H. erectus.
d. Homo sapiens.

d

65

11. Fossil of which small human found in Indonesia are speculated to be a new species of Homo?
a. the “hobbit”
b. Ida
c. Australopithecus sp. d. Paranthropus sp.

a

66

12. Genetic _____ is a change in the allele frequencies of the isolated subpopulation compared to the rest of the species.

divergence

67

13. The   concept is a companion hypothesis to gradualism and suggests a different way of achieving evolutionary change.

punctuated equilibrium

68

14. Which factor will not increase the likelihood that an organism is found in the fossil record?

a. The soft body parts decompose.
b. Marine organisms can be covered by sediment on the bottom
c. Fossils of more recent organisms are less likely to have been destroyed by geological forces.
d. Fossils of large organisms are easier to find.

a

69

15. ________ structures are similar structures in different species that have been derived from a common ancestor.

Homologous

70

1. Which one of the following is an abiotic factor?

a. a nest in a tree
b. the water in a pond
c. the producers in an ecosystem
d. the fish in a pond

b

71

2. Which one of the following categories of organisms has the largest total energy and biomass?
a. eagles, which eat fish
b. herbivores, which eat plants
c. organisms that carry on photosynthesis
d. fish that eat insects

c

72

3. The carbon that plants need for photosynthesis comes from _____.

carbon dioxide

73

4. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria
a. live in association with the roots of certain plants.
b. convert ammonia to nitrate.
c. are found in the atmosphere.
d. are rare.

a

74

5. The process of absorbing water from the soil and releasing it from leaves is called _____

transpiration

75

6. In the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus enters plants through the roots. (T/F

T

76

7. When energy flows from one trophic level to the next, about _____ percent of the energy is lost.

90%

77

8. An herbivore is at the second trophic level. (T/F)

T

78

9. Nitrogen is important in which one of the following organic molecules?
a. sugars c. water
b. fats d. proteins

d

79

10. Decomposers break down organic matter and release _____ and _____.

carbon dioxide and water.

80

11. Which one of the following is a producer?

a. earthworm
b. algae
c. yeast
d. fungus

herbivore

81

12. Which of the following populations in an ecosystem would have the highest biomass?
a. insect-eating birds
b. fish-eating birds
c. fungi
d. plants

d

82

13. A vegetarian is at the _____ trophic level.

herbivore

83

14. Which of the following is the largest conceptual unit?

a. ecosystem
b. community
c. decomposers
d. producers

a

84

15. Humans have altered most ecosystems of the world. (T/F)

T

85

1. The role an organism plays

a. niche.
b. habitat.
c. community.
d. food web.

a

86

2. The kind of interrelationship between two organisms in which both are harmed is _____.

competition

87

3. A desert is always characterized by
a. high temperature.
b. low amounts of precipitation.
c. few kinds of plants and animals.
d. sand

b

88

4. When a community is naturally changing with the addition of new species of organisms and the loss of others, _____ is occurring

succession

89

5. When two organisms cooperate and both derive benefit from the relationship, it is known as commensalism. (T/F)

F

90

6. Most of the plants and animals involved in agriculture are introduced from other parts of the world. (T/F)

T

91

7. A biome that has trees adapted to long winters is known as a
a. tundra.
b. temperate deciduous forest. c. boreal coniferous forest.
d. temperate rainforest.

c

92

8. If a forest is destroyed by a fire, it will eventually return to being a forest. This process is known as _____ succession

secondary

93

9. A collection of organisms that interact with one another in an area is known as a
a. community.
b. biome.
c. succession.
d. biomagnification.

a

94

10. The idea that no two organisms can occupy the same niche is known as the competitive exclusion principle. (T/F)

T

95

11. The tundra biome has permafrost. (T/F)

T

96

12. Plankton organisms are strong swimmers. (T/F)

F

97

13. Which of the following organisms are common in freshwater ecosystems and rare in marine ecosystems?
a. algae
b. fish
c. zooplankton
d. insects

d

98

14. Which of the following have resulted in reductions in species native to an ecosystem?
a. introduced species b. habitat destruction c. pesticide use
d. all of the above

d

99

15. In marine ecosystems, pelagic organisms are located on the bottom. (T/F)

F

100

1. The number of reproducing adults in a population compared with the number of juveniles is the
a. population density.
b. age distribution.
c. population distribution.
d. gene frequency.

b

101

2. The period of time when a population is growing rapidly is known as the _____

exponential growth phase

102

3. Populations grow
a. because most species have a high reproductive capacity.
b. when birthrates are greater than death rates.
c. when there are high numbers of reproductive and juvenile individuals in the population.
d. All of the above are correct

d

103

4. The maximum size of a population is set by limiting factors of the environment. (T/F)

T

104

5. A limiting factor that becomes more intense as the size of a population increases is known as a density- independent limiting factor. (T/F)

F

105

6. The carrying capacity
a. for the human population has been reached.
b. is determined by the limiting factors of the environment.
c. is the same for all organisms.
d. None of the above is correct

b

106

7. When the size of a population is caused to stop growing because of competition among its members, there are _____ in action.
a. extrinsic limiting factors
b. density-independent limiting factors
c. intrinsic limiting factors
d. population distribution factors

c

107

8. The populations of all species eventually reach a stable equilibrium phase. (T/F)

F

108

9. Which one of the following populations would grow most rapidly?
a. a population of mice in which there were twice as many males as females
b. a population of mice that had reached its carrying capacity
c. a population of mice in which density-dependent limiting factors were acting strongly
d. a population that was in the lag phase

d

109

10. The human population has been increasing rapidly for the past 200 years because
a. humans have displaced other organisms.
b. humans have controlled many disease organisms.
c. humans have developed improvements in agriculture.
d. All of the above are correct

d

110

11. Gene flow occurs when individuals _____ to new places.

travel/migrate/move

111

12. Pollution can be considered to be a waste product. (T/F)

T

112

13. Which of the following is an extrinsic limiting factor?
a. the number of siblings in a bird nest
b. competition among individuals for food c. rainstorms that kill many plant seedlings d. None of the above is correct.

c

113

14. A K-strategist
a. lives a short time.
b. gives care to its young.
c. is always a tiny organism.
d. None of the above is correct

b

114

15. The lag phase of a population growth curve results in a. a reduction in the size of the population.
b. little increase in the size of the population.
c. a rapidly growing population.
d. None of the above is correct.

b

115

1. Instinctive behavior differs from learned behavior in that instinctive behavior
a. is inherited.
b. is flexible.
c. is found only in simple animals.
d. is less valuable than learned behavior.

a

116

2. The thought that your dog is happy to see you is an example of _____.

anthropomorphism

117

3. Imprinting is different from other kinds of learning in that imprinting
a. is of little value to an organism.
b. is not reversible.
c. can be changed easily.
d. can occur at any time during the life of an individual

b

118

4. Learning is a change in behavior as a result of expe- rience. (T/F)

T

119

5. All of the following are typical of territorial behavior EXCEPT
a. territorial behavior reserves resources for particular individuals or groups.
b. territorial behavior involves the use of signals to denote territorial boundaries.
c. territorial behavior is found only in higher animals, such as birds and mammals.
d. territorial behavior reduces conflict after territories are established.

c

120

6. Social behavior typically involves individuals assuming specialized roles. (T/F)

T

121

7. Most methods of communication used by animals are learned. (T/F)

F

122

8. A social system in which each animal has a particular ranking in the group is a(n) _____

dominance hierarchy

123

9. Most kinds of animals provide no care for their offspring. (T/F)

T

124

10. Which of the following provide navigational clues to migrating animals?
a. landmarks, such as rivers and shorelines
b. the magnetic fields of the Earth
c. the stars
d. All of the above are correct.

d

125

11. Instinctive behaviors are simple. (T/F)

F

126

12. Humans do not learn through association. (T/F)

F

127

13. The concept of sociobiology
a. supposes that social behavior has common charac- teristics in all animals, including humans.
b. does not apply to humans.
c. is applied only to birds and mammals.
d. None of the above is correct.

c

128

14. If an organism has instinctive behavior, it probably also has the ability to learn. (T/F)

T

129

15. Exploratory learning
a. provides information that an animal can use later in life. b. is evidence of imprinting.
c. is instinctive.
d. None of the above is correct.

a