Test 4 - Topic 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 4 - Topic 20 Deck (77):
1

_________ - A nerve cell, the basic unit of communication through the body

Neuron

2

-Three types of Neurons-

_________ - Receptors for specific stimuli

Sensory Neurons

3

-Three types of Neurons-

_________-

- Neurons found in the brain and spinal chord

- Neurons responsible for figuring out what information is called and what to do about it

Interneurons

4

-Three types of Neurons-

Interneurons:

- Neurons found in the brain and _________

- Neurons responsible for figuring out what _________ is called and what to do about it

-spinal chord
-information

5

-Three types of Neurons-

_________ -
Send information from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands

Motor Neurons

6

_________ -
Cells that physically support and protect the neurons in various ways

Neuroglial Cells

7

-Three Basic Parts of the Neuron-

_________ - Contains nucleus and most of the organelles

Cell Body - (soma)

8

_________ - (soma)

Cell Body

9

-Three Basic Parts of the Neuron-

_________ :

-There is a lot of them
-Short extensions off of cell body
-Receive stimuli, "input zone"

Dendrites

10

-Three Basic Parts of the Neuron-

Dendrites:

-There is a lot of them
-Short extensions off of _________
-Receive stimuli, "_________ "

-cell body
-input zone

11

-Three Basic Parts of the Neuron-

_________ - Usually just one, long extension that transmit impulses to other cells. "output zone"

Axons

12

-Three Basic Parts of the Neuron-

Axons - Usually just one, long extension that _________ impulses to other cells. "_________"

-transmits
-output zone

13

_________ -
An electric charge that moves down the neuron membrane, starts in dendrite -> cell body -> axon, in one direction only

Nerve Impulse

14

Nerve Impulse -
An electric charge that moves down the _________ membrane, starts in _________ -> cell body -> _________, in one direction only

-neuron
-dendrite
-axon

15

_________ - A junction between a neuron and an adjacent cell

Synapses

16

-Nervous System-

The more elaborate the nervous system, the more _________ the life-style of an ________ is

-complex
-animal

17

-Nervous System-

_________ :

-Simple functions
-Stereotyped movements made in response to a specific stimulus
-Sensory neuron triggers a motor neuron

Reflex

18

-Nervous System-

Reflex:

-Simple functions
- _________ movements made in response to a specific stimulus
-Sensory _________ triggers a motor neuron

-Stereotyped
neuron

19

-Nervous System-

_________ :

-Allows for more control for reflex actions
-The more the brain regions, the more complex life style of animal

Brain Regions

20

-Nervous System-

Brain Regions:

-Allows for more control for _________ actions
-The more the brain regions, the more _________ life style of animal

-reflex
-complex

21

_________ :

-Brain - Responsible for integration of internal and external stimuli

-Spinal - Pathway of signals that travel between the peripheral nervous system and the brain

Central Nervous System

22

-Central Nervous System-

_________ - Responsible for integration of internal and external stimuli

_________ - Pathway of signals that travel between the peripheral nervous system and the brain

-Brain
-Spinal

23

-Central Nervous System-

-Brain - Responsible for integration of internal and external _________

-Spinal - Pathway of signals that travel between the peripheral _________ system and the brain

-stimuli
-nervous

24

-Peripheral Nervous System-

--Two sets of nerves

1. _________ Nerves (31 pairs) - Connects spinal cord with most parts of the body

2. _________ Nerves (12 pairs) - Connects the brain with vital organs and facial muscles

-Spinal
-Cranial

25

-Peripheral Nervous System-

--Two sets of nerves

1. Spinal Nerves (__ pairs) - Connects _________ cord with most parts of the body

2. Cranial Nerves (__ pairs) - Connects the brain with vital organs and _________ muscles

-31
-spinal
-12
-facial

26

-Peripheral Nervous System-

Some cranial nerves are only _________ , some are both sensory and _________ nerves

-sensory
-motor

27

-Peripheral Nervous System-

_________ are both sensory and motor nerves

Spinal nerves

28

-Brain Regions-

-Hindbrain

--_________

1. Control respiration
2. Control blood circulation
3. Control sleep/wake response

Medulla oblongata

29

-Brain Regions-

-Hindbrain

--Medulla oblongata

1. Control _________
2. Control blood circulation
3. Control _________ response

-respiration
-sleep/wake

30

-Brain Regions-

-Hindbrain

-- _________

1. Reflex center to maintain posture
2. Coordination of limbs

Cerebellum

31

-Brain Regions-

-Hindbrain

--Cerebellum

1. Reflex center to maintain _________
2. Coordination of _________

-posture
-limbs

32

-Brain Regions-

-Hindbrain

--_________

1. Bridge between brain centers

Pons

33

-Brain Regions-

-Hindbrain

--Pons

1. Bridge between _________ centers

brain

34

-Brain Regions-

_________-

Sort visual, auditory, factory input, and sends this information to the correct brain region for integration

Midbrain

35

-Brain Regions-

-Midbrain

Sort visual, _________, factory input, and sends this information to the correct _________ region for integration

-auditory
-brain

36

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

--_________

Most of integration happens here, - Integrates sensory input and selects motor responses

Cerebrum

37

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

--Cerebrum

Most of _________ happens here, - Integrates sensory input and selects _________ responses

-integration
-motor

38

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

-- _________

Relays and coordinates sensory signals

Thalamus

39

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

--Thalamus

Relays and coordinates _________ signals

sensory

40

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

-- _________

Monitors internal organs and influences your response to hunger, thirst, and sex

Hypothalamus

41

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

--Hypothalamus

Monitors internal _________ and influences your response to hunger, _________, and sex

-organs
-thirst

42

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

-- _________

Only mammals have this specific sight of coding and decoding information

Cerebral cortex

43

-Brain Regions-

-Forebrain

--Cerebral cortex

Only _________ have this specific sight of coding and _________ information

-mammals
-decoding

44

_________ :

The storage and retrieval of information about previous experiences

Memory

45

_________ -
Information is stored, specifically these are chemical and structural changes in the brain regions

Memory Traces

46

Memory Traces -
Information is stored, specifically these are _________ and structural changes in the _________ regions

-chemical
-brain

47

_________ Memory -
Lasts for a few seconds to a few hours. Limited to 7-8 bits of information

Short-term

48

Short-term Memory -
Lasts for a few seconds to a few _________. Limited to ___ bits of information

-hours
-7-8

49

_________ Memory -
Much more permanent and seemingly limitless

Long-term

50

Long-term Memory -
Much more permanent and seemingly _________

limitless

51

_________ - the loss of short-term or long-term memory or both

Amnesia

52

_________ - How alert you are or are not. Controlled by central nervous system, can be altered very easily

State of Consciousness

53

State of Consciousness - How alert you are or are not. Controlled by _________ , can be altered very easily

central nervous system

54

-Three components of sensory system-

_________ - Specialized cells that detect stimuli

Sensory receptors

55

-Three components of sensory system-

_________ - Pathways that carry the signals back to the brain

Nerve pathways

56

-Three components of sensory system-

_________ - Sensory information is processed

Brain Regions

57

_________ - Conscience awareness of a stimuli

_________ - Understanding what a sensation means

-Sensation
-Perception

58

Sensation - Conscience awareness of a _________

Perception - Understanding what a _________ means

-stimuli
-sensation

59

-Sensory Receptors-

_________ - Chemical molecules

-Olfactory - Smelling
-Taste - Taste buds

Chemoreceptors

60

-Sensory Receptors-

Chemoreceptors - Chemical molecules

_________ - Smelling
_________ - Taste buds

-Olfactory
-Taste

61

-Sensory Receptors-

_________ - Detect changes in pressure, position, and acceleration

Mechanoreceptors

62

-Sensory Receptors-

_________ - Detect light

Photoreceptors

63

-Sensory Receptors-

_________ - Detect heat

Thermoreceptors

64

-Sensory Receptors-

_________ - Detect pain

Nociceptors

65

-Sensations-

_________ - Most found in fingertips and genital regions

Touch and pressure

66

-Sensations-

_________ - Perception of inquiry to some part of the body

Pain

67

-Sensations-

_________ - Pain that is felt at a distance from the real stimulation

Visceral pain

68

-Sensations-

_________ - Receptors that are found in muscle, joints, tendons, and ligaments, give awareness of your body's position

Muscle sense

69

-Sensations-

Muscle sense - Receptors that are found in muscles, joints, _________, and ligaments, give _________ of your body's position

-tendons
-awareness

70

-Sensations-

_________ - Depends on organs of equilibrium. Found in inner ear

Balance

71

-Sensations-

_________ - Overstimulation of dendrites in inner ear

Motion sickness

72

-Vision Structure-

_________ - White part of eye

Sclera

73

-Vision Structure-

_________ - Extension of sclera that is clear and covers front of eye

Cornea

74

-Vision Structure-

_________ - Focuses an image on back of eye

Lens

75

-Vision Structure-

_________ - Photoreceptor in back of eye

Retina

76

-Vision Structure-

--Two types of _________

1. Cones - Daytime vision, detect color
2.Rods - Nighttime vision, detects black white and grey

photoreceptors

77

-Vision Structure-

--Two types of photoreceptors

1. _________ - Daytime vision, detect color
2. _________ - Nighttime vision, detects black white and grey

-Cones
-Rods