Test 3 - Topic 13-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3 - Topic 13-14 Deck (103):
1

_________ : group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other natural populations

species

2

_________ - A specific evolutionary pattern where there is a rapid increase in the number of closely related species

Adaptive Radiation

3

Adaptive Radiation - A specific evolutionary pattern where there is a rapid _________ in the number of closely related _________

-increase
-species

4

_________ - An evolutionary pattern where very different organisms show similar characteristics

Convergent Evolution

5

Convergent Evolution - An evolutionary pattern where very different _________ show similar _________

-organisms
-characteristics

6

_________ - An evolutionary pattern where individual events cause many branches in the evolution of a group of organisms

Divergent Evolution

7

Divergent Evolution - An evolutionary pattern where _________ events cause many branches in the evolution of a group of _________

-individual
-organisms

8

_________ : is the process by which local units of a population become reproductively isolated from other units and thus experience changes in gene frequencies

Genetic divergence

9

Genetic divergence is the process by which local units of a _________ become reproductively isolated from other units and thus experience changes in _________ frequencies

-population
-gene

10

_________ - reinforce genetic divergence by stopping gene flow (cant move from flint to lansing - something is blocking them)

Isolating mechanisms

11

Isolating mechanisms - reinforce _________ divergence by _________ gene flow (cant move from flint to lansing - something is blocking them)

-genetic
-stopping

12

_________ Isolation - Isolation mechanisms that take place before the zygote is formed

Pre-zygotic

13

_________ Isolation - They have different times of reproduction

Temporal

14

_________ Isolation - Refers to the different patterns of courtship

Behavioral

15

_________ Isolation - Reproductive organs prevent successful breeding (chiwawa and great dane)

Mechanical

16

_________ Isolation - Egg and sperm can not fuse together

Gametic

17

_________ Isolation - A physical barrier prevents mating

Geographical

18

_________ Isolation - Takes place after the zygote is formed

Postzygotic

19

A _________ is produced -

-One hybrid is weak sickly, and dies shortly after birth
-One hybrid is strong and healthy but sterile

hybrid

20

A hybrid is produced -

-One hybrid is _________ sickly, and dies shortly after birth
-One hybrid is _________ and healthy but sterile

-weak
-strong

21

_________ Speciation - Takes place in the absence of gene flow
(the isolating mechanism is Geographical)
(Allopatric = Different homeland) (physical barrier)

Allopatric

22

Allopatric Speciation - Takes place in the absence of gene flow
(the isolating mechanism is _________ )
(Allopatric = Different _________ ) (physical barrier)

-Geographical
-homeland

23

_________ Speciation - New species arise, sometimes rapidly from a small proportion of individuals within the existing population (Sympatric = Same homeland)

Sympatric

24

Sympatric Speciation - New species arise, sometimes rapidly from a small proportion of _________ within the existing population (Sympatric = Same _________ )

-individuals
-homeland

25

_________ - Have more than two chromosomes per trait -
(Is considered isolation and instant speciation)
[This instant speciation can only happen in plants]

Polyploidy

26

Polyploidy - Have more than two chromosomes per trait -
(Is considered _________ and instant speciation)
[This instant speciation can only happen in _________ ]

-isolation
-plants

27

_________ Speciation - New species form from a small proportion of individuals along a common border between two populations

(Usually competing for food) - (Parapatric = Near another homeland)
-Gene flow may not be stopped

Parapatric

28

Parapatric Speciation - New species form from a small proportion of individuals along a common border between two _________

(Usually competing for food) - (Parapatric = _________ another homeland)
-Gene flow may not be stopped

-populations
-Near

29

-Patterns of Speciation-

_________ - (Branched Speciation)

Cladogenesis

30

-Patterns of Speciation-

Cladogenesis (Branched _________ )

Speciation

31

-Patterns of Speciation-

_________ - (Unbranched Speciation)

Anagenesis

32

-Patterns of Speciation-

Anagenesis (Unbranched _________ )

Speciation

33

-Rate of Speciation-

_________ - (Darwin) - Changes take place very slowly over generations of time

Gradualism

34

-Rate of Speciation-

_________ - (Gould) - There are periods of rapid speciation where many species evolve followed by time periods with little speciation

Punctuated Equilibrium

35

-Rate of Speciation-

Punctuated Equilibrium - (Gould) - There are periods of rapid _________ where many species evolve followed by _________ periods with little speciation

-speciation
-time

36

-Rate of Speciation-

_________ - When an entire species dies off

Extinction

37

-Rate of Speciation-

_________ Extinction - Rather inevitable loss of species as local conditions change over time

Background

38

-Rate of Speciation-

_________ Extinction - An abrupt disappearance of many species due to catastrophic global events

Mass

39

_________ - The study of relationships between organisms and their environment

Ecology

40

_________ - Anything that affects and organism during its lifetime

Environment

41

_________ - A complex of organisms interacting with one another and with their physical environment

Ecosystem

42

_________ are open systems - Through which energy flows and Materials are cycled

Ecosystems

43

_________ require - Energy and nutrient input and generate energy and nutrient output

Ecosystems

44

_________ cannot be recycled - Most of it is lost as _________ to the environment

-Energy
-heat

45

_________ on the earth function as systems running on energy from the _________ processed though various organisms

-Regions
-sun

46

_________ - The living organisms

Biotic

47

_________ - The physical environment

Abiotic

48

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Autotrophs that can use sunlight energy to make organic compound

Producers

49

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Heterotrophs that feed on the tissues of other organisms

Consumers

50

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Consume plants

Herbivores

51

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Consume animals

Carnivores

52

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Consume living host

Parasites

53

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Consume both plants and animals

Omnivores

54

-Participants in the ecosystem-

_________ - Heterotrophs that get energy from the remains or waste products of other organisms

Decomposers

55

_________ - (Feeding level)

Trophic Levels

56

_________ levels are a hierarchy of energy transfers, bluntly stated, "Who eats whom"

Trophic

57

Trophic levels are a hierarchy of energy transfers, bluntly stated, "_________"

Who eats whom

58

_________ trophic level - Grass

First

59

_________ trophic level - Primary consumer (herbivores)

Second

60

_________ trophic level - Secondary consumer (carnivores)

Third

61

_________ trophic level - Tertiary consumer - [Top Predator] (Consume everything below it)

Fourth

62

Traditionally every habitat had its top predator (usually only one)

1) Michigan - _________

2) African savanna - Lions

3) South-east Asia - _________

4) Northern Canada - Polar bear

-Wolves
-Tigers

63

_________ - Feed off all trophic levels

Decomposers

64

A sequence of who eats whom is called a _________

food chain

65

Cross-connecting food chains make up _________

food webs

66

_________ - Total rate of photosynthesis for an ecosystem during a specific time period

Gross primary productivity

67

_________ - Rate of energy storage in plant tissue in excess of what the plant uses for maintenance growth and reproduction

Net primary productivity

68

Net primary productivity - Rate of energy storage in plant _________ in excess of what the plant uses for maintenance growth and _________

-tissue
-reproduction

69

The net primary productivity is what is available for _________ consumption

heterotrophic

70

Energy flows into the _________

ecosystem

71

Energy flows from the _______ --> _Plants_ --> _Herbivores_ --> _Carnivore_ -->

_Sun_

72

Energy leaves the _________ through heat losses generated by _________

-ecosystem
-metabolism

73

Trophic structure can be diagrammed as a _________ in which producers form a base for successive tiers of _________ above them

-pyramid
-consumers

74

Pyramids can be of two types

- _________ pyramid
- _________ pyramid

-Biomass
-Energy

75

Only about __% of the energy entering each trophic level becomes available to organisms at the next _________ level

-10
-trophic

76

- 100% of the energy enters the _________
- 10% of the 100% is available for the _________ (90% is lost as heat)
- 1% of the original 100% is available for the Primary Carnivores (99% is lost as heat)
- 0.1% of the original 100% is available for the Top Predators

-Producers
-Herbivores

77

- 100% of the energy enters the Producers
- 10% of the 100% is available for the Herbivores (90% is lost as heat)
- 1% of the original 100% is available for the Primary _________ (99% is lost as heat)
- 0.1% of the original 100% is available for the _________ Predators

-Carnivores
-Top

78

Because of the energy loss that is noted as you move up the energy pyramid, "__________________ ", Paul Colinvaux.

Why Big Fierce Animals are Rare

79

_________ - Ecosystems named for their dominant vegetation and climate

Biomes

80

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Ice, Freezing, no vegetation

Polar ice cap

81

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Short growing season long winter, No trees, all waste high vegetation, very cold

Tundra

82

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Dominated by pine trees, cold

Boreal Forest (taiga)

83

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Broad leaf trees, Mild summer - mild winter

Temperate Forest

84

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Prairie, dominated by grasses, Very fertile lands (Bison/antelope eats the trees) (Trees burned out

Temperate Grass Lands

85

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Succulents (plants that store water) - Very Dry climate

Deserts

86

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Lush thick vegetation - Humid, Hot

Tropical Rain Forest

87

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Grasslands with a scattering of trees - Has wet and dry season

Tropical Savanna

88

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Thorny plants - Dry season and short wet season

Tropical Dry Forest

89

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Multiple Biomes on the slopes (with elevation)

Mountains

90

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Has a wet season and very long dry season. Prone to fires - (All around the Mediterranean sea, southern California)

Mediterranean Shrub and Woodland

91

-Major biomes of the world-

_________ - Dominated by conifers

Temperate Rain Forest

92

-Major biomes of the world-

Polar ice cap - Ice, _________ , no _________

-Freezing
-vegetation

93

-Major biomes of the world-

Tundra - Short _________ season, long winter, No _________ , all waste high vegetation, very cold

-growing
-trees

94

-Major biomes of the world-

Boreal Forest (taiga) - Dominated by _________ trees, _________

-pine
-cold

95

-Major biomes of the world-

Temperate Forest - Broad _________ trees, _________ summer - _________ winter

-leaf
-Mild
-Mild

96

-Major biomes of the world-

Temperate Grass Lands - Prairie, dominated by _________ , Very _________ lands (Bison/antelope eats the trees) (Trees burned out)

-grasses
-fertile

97

-Major biomes of the world-

Deserts - _________ (plants that store water) - Very _________ climate

-Succulents
-Dry

98

-Major biomes of the world-

Tropical Rain Forest - Lush thick _________ - Humid, _________

-vegetation
-Hot

99

-Major biomes of the world-

Tropical Savanna - Grasslands with a scattering of _________ - Has _________ and _________ season

-trees
-wet
-dry

100

-Major biomes of the world-

Tropical Dry Forest - Thorny _________ - Dry season and short _________ season

-plants
-wet

101

-Major biomes of the world-

Mountains - Multiple Biomes on the _________ (with elevation)

slopes

102

-Major biomes of the world-

Mediterranean Shrub and Woodland - Has a _________ season and very long dry season. Prone to _________ - (All around the Mediterranean sea, southern California)

-wet
-fires

103

-Major biomes of the world-

Temperate Rain Forest - Dominated by _________

conifers