Test 2 - Chapters 8-9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 - Chapters 8-9 Deck (62):
1

_________ Reproduction
Any type of reproduction that does not require the fusion of gametes

Asexual

2

(_________ = sex cells)

gametes

3

_________ Reproduction
Reproduction that requires the combination of genetic material from 2 individuals to create a third individual

Sexual

4

-Life Cycle- -Sexual Reproduction

-_________ of gametes (egg and sperm fusing together)

-Cell division and growth

-Production of gametes

-Death

Fertilization

5

-Life Cycle- -Sexual Reproduction

-Fertilization of gametes (egg and sperm fusing together)

-Cell division and _________

-Production of gametes

-Death

growth

6

-Life Cycle- -Sexual Reproduction

-Fertilization of gametes (egg and sperm fusing together)

-Cell division and growth

-Production of _________

-Death

gametes

7

-Life Cycle- -Sexual Reproduction

-Fertilization of gametes (egg and sperm fusing together)

-Cell division and growth

-Production of gametes

-_________

Death

8

All life depends on the capacity of cells to _________

divide

9

_________ begins with the division of a single cell

Reproduction

10

_________ - Body cells

Mitosis

11

_________ :
Cell division in which two genetically identical new cells are formed from one old cell

Mitosis - Body cells

12

Mitosis is used by _________ organisms to increase the number of cells

multicellular

13

_________ - Gametes

Meiosis

14

_________ :
Cell division that cuts the genetic material in half and produces gametes

Meiosis - Gametes

15

_________ are large molecules of DNA

Chromosomes

16

Each of our cells has ___ chromosomes

46

17

Prior to the division of the nucleus each chromosome is _________

duplicated

18

Each new chromosome is _________ to the old chromosome

attached

19

_________ :
When a chromosome is duplicated the two molecules of DNA are called _________

-Sister Chromatid
-chromatids

20

The _________ is where the two chromatids are attached to one another

centromere

21

During _________
The chromosome number is maintained for the _________ at hand

-mitosis
-species

22

_________:
Have two copies of each type of chromosome

Diploid Cells

23

_________ is not part of mitosis

interphase

24

_________
The time interval when the cell increases in size

Interphase

25

Three subdivisions of the _________

-G1
-S - Synthesis
-G2

interphase

26

_________ :
When the cell is going to divide

Mitosis

27

-Four stages of mitosis-

_________ :
- Beginning of mitosis
- Chromosome are now visible, appear to be SCATTERED
- Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes
- End of prophase the nucleus falls apart

Prophase

28

-Four stages of mitosis-

_________ :
The chromosomes are lined up

Metaphase

29

-Four stages of mitosis-

_________ :
The chromosomes are separated
Shorten and pull the chromosomes apart

Anaphase

30

-Four stages of mitosis-

_________ :
- Two masses of chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell
-Each of masses will become a new nucleus

Telophase

31

_________ - to split the cell

Cytokinesis

32

_________ (undifferentiated cell)

Cancer

33

_________ :
- Unchecked reproduction of cells by mitosis
- All of the cells in cancer resemble immature or undifferentiated cells

Cancer

34

_________ :
A mass of undifferentiated cells not normally found where it's at

Tumor

35

_________ :
A non-encapsulated growth of tumor cells that is harmful and may spread easily to other parts of the body

Malignant Tumor

36

_________ :
An encapsulated growth of tumor cells that tends to reproduce slowly and only becomes harmful with size

Benign Tumor

37

_________ :
Spreading of cancer

Metastasis

38

_________ :
The use of chemicals to help treat a disease or symptoms

Chemotherapy

39

Causes of _________


- UV rays, the sun
- Chemicals (Carcinogens)
- Diet
- Viruses
- Hormonal Imbalance
- Genetics

Cancer

40

Warning signs of _________


- A change in bowel or bladder habits
- A sore that wont heal
- Unusual bleeding or discharge
- A thickening or lump
- Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
- An obvious change in a wart or mole
A nagging cough or hoarseness

Cancer

41

How cancer cells spread

Cancer cells break off from the original tumor and enter the _________

bloodstream

42

Organisms that reproduce _________ rely on chromosome duplication and mitotic cell division

asexually

43

One parent passes a duplicate of its genetic information to its offspring

-offspring are genetically identical to the parent - _________

Clone

44

diploid number - ___

46

45

In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes _________ gene for each trait

one

46

Genes for each trait come in slightly different forms called _________

Alleles

47

_________ - Female sex cell

Egg

48

_________ - Male sex cell

Sperm

49

_________ - General term applied to either sex cell

Gamete

50

_________ - The cellular process that is responsible generating gametes (meiosis)

Gametogenesis

51

_________ - The fusing of the sperm and egg together

Fertilization

52

_________ - The cell that results from fertilization

Zygote

53

Meiosis begins with _________ diploid (2n) germ cell and produces _________ haploid (n) gametes

-ONE
-FOUR

54

[_________ = half the number of chromosomes]

haploid

55

Meiosis produces _________ that have half of each chromosome pairs

gametes

56

_________ - An exchange of DNA between different chromosomes

Crossing Over

57

_________ - Any change in the DNA. The ultimate source of new variations

Mutation

58

_________ - Variations are produced do to genetically different gametes fusing during fertilization

Fertilization

59

-Males-

_________ - Meiosis that results in Sperm

Spermatogenesis

60

-Males-

Spermatogenesis produces four _________ sperm cells from every diploid, germ cell

haploid

61

-Females-

_________ - Meiosis that produces eggs

Oogenesis

62

-Females-

Oogenesis produces 1 haploid _________ and 3 haploid _________ bodies from every diploid germ cell
- The ovum will mature into the egg

-ovum
-polar