Test 3 - Topic 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3 - Topic 15 Deck (79):
1

_________ - An association of interacting populations of different species living in a particular habitat

Community

2

Community - An association of interacting populations of different _________ living in a particular _________

-species
-habitat

3

_________ - Where an organism lives

Habitat

4

-Factors that affect the habitat-

-Interactions between the _________ and _________ (lay of the land)

-Availability of _________

-climate
-topography
-food

5

-Factors that affect the habitat-

-Adaptive traits which enables the _________ to exploit the _________

-Interactions between individual members of the _________

-individuals
-resources
-community

6

-Factors that affect the habitat-

-Physical _________ (fire, tornado, roads)

-Immigration

-Episodes of _________

-disturbances
-extinction

7

A. Interactions between the climate and topography (lay of the land)
B. Availability of food
C. Adaptive traits which enables the individuals to exploit the resources
D. Interactions between individual members of the community
E. Physical disturbances (fire, tornado, roads)
F. Immigration
G. Episodes of extinction

These are all:

-Factors that affect the habitat-

8

_________ : Where it lives and what its doing

Niche

9

Each and every species has its own _________ - Which is defined by the relationships with other _________

-niche
-organisms

10

_________ - address and occupation of the species

Niche

11

_________ - Full range of physical and biological conditions under which individuals live and reproduce

Niche

12

_________ can occur between any two species in a community and between entire _________

-Interactions
-communities

13

-Types of species-

_________ - Neither species is affected by the other

Neutral

14

-Types of species-

Neutral - Neither _________ is affected by the other

species

15

-Types of species-

_________ - Where one species benefits and the other is not affected (bird building nest in tree)

Commensalism

16

-Types of species-

Commensalism - Where one species _________ and the other is _________ affected (bird building nest in tree)

-benefits
-not

17

-Types of species-

_________ (symbiotic relationship)- Both species benefit

Mutualism

18

-Types of species-

Mutualism (symbiotic relationship)- Both species _________

benefit

19

-Types of species-

_________ - Both species lose/harmed - Resources disappear quickly

Competition

20

-Types of species-

Competition - Both species _________ /harmed - Resources _________ quickly

-lose
-disappear

21

-Types of species-

_________ - One benefits, predator - One Harmed, prey

Predation

22

-Types of species-

Predation - One _________ , predator - One _________, prey

-benefits
-Harmed

23

-Types of species-

_________ - Parasite benefits, the host is harmed

Parasitism

24

-Types of species-

Parasitism - Parasite _________ , the _________ is harmed

-benefits
-host

25

_________ competition - Competition Within Species

Intraspecific

26

(_________ means within)

Intra

27

_________ competition:

-Most fierce type of competition
-Resources disappear quickly

Intraspecific

28

_________ competition - Competition Between species

Interspecific

29

(_________ means outer)

Inter

30

_________ competition - All individuals have equal access to a resource but differ in their ability to exploit that resource (speed & efficiency matters)

Exploitation

31

Exploitation competition - All individuals have _________ access to a resource but differ in their ability to _________ that resource (speed & efficiency matters)

-equal
-exploit

32

_________ competition - Some individuals limit others access to the resource (Sets up territory and defends it)

Interference

33

Interference competition - Some individuals _________ others access to the _________ (Sets up territory and defends it)

-limit
-resource

34

_________ Exclusion - Complete competitors can not co-exist indefinitely (someone is left out- leave area or go die)

Competitive

35

Competitive Exclusion - Complete competitors can not _________ indefinitely (someone is left out- _________ area or go die)

-co-exist
-leave

36

_________ - Similar species are sharing the same resource in different way

Resource Partitioning

37

Warblers are small birds that are found up north in pine forests. All of these different species of warblers eat insects on these trees. These warblers have divided up the insects. The different species feed:

- Species A eats the insects on the top of the trees
- Species B eats the insects on the tips of the branches
- Species C eats the insects at the base of the trees
- Species D eats the insects in among the branches

This is an example of:

Resource Partitioning

38

_________ -Both derive energy from other organisms

Predator vs. Parasite

39

Both derive energy from other organisms

_________ - coyote, frog, squirrel
_________ - ticks, fleas, mosquitos

-Predator
-Parasite

40

_________ - A predictable development of species in a community

Succession

41

_________ - The changes in species composition over time

Succession

42

-The Successional Model-

_________ :

-Pioneer species - First species to move into an area
-Climax species - The last to move into an area

Succession

43

-The Successional Model-

Succession :

_________ species - First species to move into an area
_________ species - The last to move into an area

-Pioneer
-Climax

44

-The Successional Model-

_________ succession - Takes place in an area that is devoid of life (Volcano, Under a glacier)

Primary

45

-The Successional Model-

_________ succession - Where a community re-establishes itself after a disturbance (Fire, disease, flood)

Secondary

46

-The Successional Model-

_________ - as plant species composition change so do the animal species composition

Animals

47

-The Successional Model-

Animals:

_________ Species - Large mammals

Climax

48

-The Successional Model-

Animals:

_________ species - Insect

Pioneer

49

-The Successional Model-

Animals:

Pioneer species - _________

Insect

50

-The Successional Model-

Animals:

Climax Species - _________

Large mammals

51

-Community Stability or instability-

_________ - Can slow the growth of the community (fire)

Short-term disturbances

52

-Community Stability or instability-

_________ - Have destabilizing effects - usually to climate or other environmental change

Long-term changes

53

-Community Stability or instability-

_________ species - The dominant species that dictates community structure

Keystone

54

-Community Stability or instability-

_________ species - Species that moves into an area that is not part of their home range

Introduced

55

-Community Stability or instability-
--Introduced species

It is natural for a _________ to expand its range - It's usually _________ and causes no problems

-species
-slow

56

-Community Stability or instability-
--Introduced species

Ones that we transport quite _________ but climate controls their _________

-rapidly
-numbers

57

-Community Stability or instability-
--Introduced species

Some _________ species can alter the community forever and they are _________ sustaining

-introduced
-self

58

_________ - "the variety of organisms considered at all levels, from genetic variants belonging to the same species to arrays of different species. " E. O. Wilson

Biodiversity

59

Biodiversity - "the variety of _________ considered at all levels, from _________ variants belonging to the same species to arrays of different species. " E. O. Wilson

-organisms
-genetic

60

-Biodiversity-
--Mainland patterns

The number of species _________ from the Artic regions to the temperate zones to _________ areas

-increases
-tropical

61

-Biodiversity-
--Mainland patterns

Biodiversity favors the _________ areas

- Tropics have more rain and more sunlight (more primary productivity)
- Rate of speciation was quicker in tropics

tropical

62

-Biodiversity-
--Mainland patterns

Biodiversity favors the tropical areas

- Tropics have more _________ and more sunlight (more primary productivity)
- Rate of speciation was _________ in tropics

-rain
-quicker

63

-Biodiversity-

_________ :

The number of species increases from the Artic regions to the temperate zones to tropical areas

Mainland patterns

64

-Biodiversity-

_________ :

Distant effect - Further from mainland the less diverse the island is

Island Patterns

65

-Biodiversity-
--Island Patterns

_________ - Further from mainland the less diverse the island is

Distant effect

66

-Biodiversity-
--Island Patterns

_________ - The bigger the island the more diverse it is

Area effect

67

_________ in ecosystems

Hydrologic cycle - the cycling of water
Carbon cycle - the cycling of carbon

Cycling of materials

68

-Cycling of materials in ecosystems-

_________ cycle - the cycling of water

Hydrologic

69

-Cycling of materials in ecosystems-

_________ cycle - the cycling of carbon

Carbon

70

-Hydrologic cycle - the cycling of water-

Evaporation --> _________ --> Condensation --> _________ --> Runoff --> _________ --> Evaporation

-Transpiration
-Precipitation
-Collecting

71

-Hydrologic cycle - the cycling of water-

_________ --> Transpiration --> _________ --> Precipitation --> _________ --> Collecting --> _________

-Evaporation
-Condensation
-Runoff
-Evaporation

72

-Carbon cycle - the cycling of carbon-

Atmosphere --> _________ --> Animals --> _________

-Plants
-Atmosphere

73

-Carbon cycle - the cycling of carbon-

_________ --> Plants --> _________ --> Atmosphere

-Atmosphere
-Animals

74

Carbon based Molecules _________

CO2

75

_________ - the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a form that organisms can use by bacteria

Nitrogen Cycle

76

_________ - Used by nitrogen fixing bacteria - switch it into form plants can absorb

Nitrogen Cycle

77

Nitrogen Cycle- the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a form that _________ can use by bacteria. The nitrogen is incorporated into many different kind of _________ and then when the organism dies, the nitrogen may be released by different _________ or other organism will absorb it and use it

-organisms
-molecules
-bacteria

78

_________ - A chemical that builds up in the tissue of animals

Biomagnification

79

_________ - Higher in the food web the more chemicals are stored away

Biomagnification