Test 3 - Topic 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3 - Topic 16 Deck (79):
1

_________ - The study of the relationships between organisms and between organisms and their environment

Ecology

2

Ecology - The study of the relationships between _________ and between organisms and their _________

-organisms
-environment

3

_________ interactions can happen at many different levels

Ecological

4

-Ecological interactions-

_________ - Interactions within the same species

Population

5

-Ecological interactions-

_________ - All the different populations living in a particular habitat

Community

6

-Ecological interactions-

_________ - The community interacting with the physical environment

Ecosystems

7

-Ecological interactions-

_________ - Entire part of earth that contains life

Biosphere

8

-Ecological interactions-

Population - Interactions within the same _________

species

9

-Ecological interactions-

Community - All the different _________ living in a particular _________

-populations
-habitat

10

-Ecological interactions-

Ecosystems - The community _________ with the _________ environment

-interacting
-physical

11

-Ecological interactions-

Biosphere - Entire part of _________ that contains _________

-earth
-life

12

_________ - The study of the factors that influence variations in the number and densities of populations over time and space

Population dynamics

13

Population dynamics - The study of the factors that influence _________ in the number and densities of _________ over time and space

-variations
-populations

14

_________ - The number of individuals per unit of area or volume

Population density

15

_________ - The general pattern in which the population members are dispersed

Distribution

16

-Population characteristics-
--Distribution

_________ - Where the individuals are clustered together usually in response to environmental conditions or they are social animals

Clumped

17

-Population characteristics-
--Distribution

_________ - Each individual is located independent of the others

Random

18

-Population characteristics-
--Distribution

_________ - Individuals are evenly spaced usually as a result of competition or territories

Uniform

19

-Population characteristics-
--Distribution

Clumped - Where the individuals are _________ together usually in response to _________ conditions or they are social animals

-clustered
-environmental

20

-Population characteristics-
--Distribution

Random - Each _________ is located _________ of the others

-individual
-independent

21

-Population characteristics-
--Distribution

Uniform - Individuals are _________ spaced usually as a result of _________ or territories

-evenly
-competition

22

-Age structure-

_________ - Individuals that are not mature enough to reproduce

Pre-reproductive

23

-Age structure-

Pre-reproductive - Individuals that are not _________ enough to _________

-mature
-reproduce

24

-Age structure-

_________ - Individuals that have the potential to be reproducing

Reproductive

25

-Age structure-

Reproductive - Individuals that have the _________ to be _________

-potential
-reproducing

26

-Age structure-

_________ - At an age that is beyond the capability to reproduce

Post-reproductive

27

-Age structure-

Post-reproductive - At an age that is _________ the capability to _________

-beyond
-reproduce

28

A. Pre-reproductive - Individuals that are not mature enough to reproduce
B. Reproductive - Individuals that have the potential to be reproducing
C. Post-reproductive - At an age that is beyond the capability to reproduce

-These three categories are better than _________ brackets because not all organisms age at the same _________

-age
-rate

29

-Pre-reproductive
-Reproductive
-Post-reproductive

_________ can go through these stages in a week or two, depending on the species of the fruit fly. A large _________ may take many years to go through these stage

-Fruit flies
-mammal

30

_________ is dependent on:

-Births
-Immigration
-Deaths
-Emigration

Population size

31

Population size is dependent on:

-Births
-_________
-Deaths
-_________

-Immigration
-Emigration

32

_________ - When all four add up to zero (number that enters the population equals the number that leaves)

Zero population growth

33

Zero population growth - When all four add up to zero (number that _________ the population _________ the number that leaves)

-enters
-equals

34

_________ - For every year that passes the population is doubling in size

Exponential Growth

35

_________ - The maximum rate of increase in a population under ideal non-limiting conditions

Biotic potential

36

Biotic potential - The maximum rate of _________ in a population under ideal non-limiting _________

-increase
-conditions

37

The biotic potential varies from:

species to species

38

The biotic potential varies from species to species depending on:

1) How _________ the individual is when it starts to _________
2) How often the individuals reproduce
3) How many offspring are born each time
4) How many of the offspring survive to reproduce

-old
-reproduce

39

The biotic potential varies from species to species depending on:

1) How old the individual is when it starts to reproduce
2) How _________ the individuals _________
3) How many offspring are born each time
4) How many of the offspring survive to reproduce

-often
-reproduce

40

The biotic potential varies from species to species depending on:

1) How old the individual is when it starts to reproduce
2) How often the individuals reproduce
3) How many _________ are _________ each time
4) How many of the offspring survive to reproduce

-offspring
-born

41

The biotic potential varies from species to species depending on:

1) How old the individual is when it starts to reproduce
2) How often the individuals reproduce
3) How many offspring are born each time
4) How many of the _________ survive to _________

-offspring
-reproduce

42

-Biotic potential-

The actual rate of increase of a population is _________ by environmental _________

-influenced
-circumstances

43

_________ -

-Environmental circumstances
-Limiting factors - anything that can be depleted (nutrients, space, water, nesting material)

Limits on a population

44

-Limits on a population-

- _________ circumstances
-Limiting factors - anything that can be _________ (nutrients, space, water, nesting material)

-Environmental
-depleted

45

_________ - Characterized by an S shaped curve

Logistic growth

46

-Logistic growth-

_________ - The stable period in logistic growth.

Carrying capacity

47

-Logistic growth-

_________ - The number of individuals that can be sustained by a particular habitat

Carrying capacity

48

-Logistic growth-

Period of _________ growth

exponential

49

-Logistic growth-

Carrying capacity can be _________ or raised depending on the _________

-lowered
-environment

50

-Logistic growth-

_________ :

-Density dependent controls
-Density independent controls

Checks on population growth

51

-Logistic growth-
--Checks on population growth

Density _________ controls - Population limiting factors that exert their effects with respect to the number of individuals present (Main factors - Competition, predation, parasitism, and disease

dependent

52

-Logistic growth-
--Checks on population growth

Density dependent controls - Population limiting _________ that exert their effects with respect to the number of _________ present

(Main factors - Competition, predation, parasitism, and disease)

-factors
-individuals

53

-Logistic growth-
--Checks on population growth

Density _________ controls - Events such as weather, which tends to kill members of the population no matter how large it is (Floods, blizzards, droughts)

independent

54

-Logistic growth-
--Checks on population growth

Density independent controls - Events such as_________ , which tends to kill members of the _________ no matter how large it is

(Floods, blizzards, droughts)

-weather
-population

55

-Life History Patterns-

_________ - Age specific patterns of life and death

Life tables

56

-Life History Patterns-

_________ : (reproductive patterns)

Survivorship curves

57

-Life History Patterns-
--Types of survivorship curves

Type __ curve - (generally large mammals) - Parents take care of them

1

58

-Life History Patterns-
--Types of survivorship curves

Type __ curve - 50/50 chance of surviving every day (song birds or rodents)

2

59

-Life History Patterns-
--Types of survivorship curves

Type __ curve - Most die young, parents leave them after birth

3

60

__ billion people currently on earth

7.3

61

_________ has the most people on earth

China

62

_________ has second most people on earth, 1.1 billion

India

63

U.S. has third most people on earth at ___ million

310

64

Every year more than ___ million people are born, 10,000 per hour

90

65

How does the human population sidestep the natural population controls:

- Humans can expand into new _________ and _________
- Agricultural technology has increased the carrying capacity of the land (more corn, wheat, etc.)
-Medical practices which have improved sanitary condition

-habitats
-climates

66

How does the human population sidestep the natural population controls:

- Humans can expand into new habitats and climates
- Agricultural technology has _________ the carrying capacity of the _________ (more corn, wheat, etc.)
-Medical practices which have improved sanitary condition

-increased
-land

67

How does the human population sidestep the natural population controls:

- Humans can expand into new habitats and climates
- Agricultural technology has increased the carrying capacity of the land (more corn, wheat, etc.)
- _________ practices which have improved _________ condition

-Medical
-sanitary

68

-Human Population-
--Present and future growth

It took many thousands of years for the human population to reach __ billion

1

69

-Human Population-
--Present and future growth

It took only __ years to go from 4 billion to 5 billion

12

70

-Human Population-
--Present and future growth

Even at the present rate of __% population growth, the human population is rapidly reaching a size that is not _________

-1.7
-sustainable

71

-Human Population-
--Present and future growth

At the 1st world conference in the early _________ 's the "experts" predicted that the earths carrying capacity for humans was _________ billion

-1970
-300

72

-Human Population-
--Present and future growth

In _________ the 2nd world conference withdrew that prediction and refused to set a number for the carrying capacity (they don't know)

1999

73

-Economics and human population growth-

_________ countries - (underdeveloped) Very harsh living conditions, birth rate and death rate are high

Pre-industrial

74

-Economics and human population growth-

_________ countries - Living conditions are improved, death rate is lower but birth rate is high

Transitional

75

-Economics and human population growth-

_________ countries - Living conditions are greatly improved, birth rate and death rate are low, but still increasing in size (U.S. Germany)

Industrial

76

-Economics and human population growth-

_________ countries - The best living conditions, have achieved zero population growth, (Sweden, Finland)

Postindustrial

77

When the economy is bad, people tend to have more _________ for some reason (sex is usually free)
When the economy is good, the population _________ or stabilizes

-babies
-declines

78

Family planning programs can achieve a faster _________ in birth rate than can _________ development

-decline
-economic

79

Even if the replacement level of fertility is achieved (about ___ children per woman), the human population will continue to grow for another ___ years

-2
-60