Test 4 - Topic 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 4 - Topic 21 Deck (47):
1

_________ Reproduction - One parent produces clones

Asexual

2

_________ Reproduction - Two parents, variations with traits from both parents

Sexual

3

-Difficulties of reproducing sexually-

_________ - Gametes must be mature and available at the same time

Timing

4

-Difficulties of reproducing sexually-

--Fertilization

_________ Fertilization - Sperm and egg fused outside of body, many many gametes released at same time, most are not fertilized

External

5

-Difficulties of reproducing sexually-

--Fertilization

External Fertilization - Sperm and egg fused outside of _________, many many gametes released at same time, most are not _________

-body
-fertilized

6

-Difficulties of reproducing sexually-

--Fertilization

_________ Fertilization - Must be elaborate reproductive system for the delivery and reception of sperm and the development of offspring

Internal

7

-Difficulties of reproducing sexually-

--Fertilization

Internal Fertilization - Must be _________ reproductive system for the delivery and reception of _________ and the development of offspring

-elaborate
-sperm

8

-Difficulties of reproducing sexually-

Energy needs to be set aside for nourishing the _________ (__types of eggs)

-offspring
-3

9

_________ - Offspring are born or hatched early before they are fully formed and live as larva

Eggs with little yolk

10

_________ - Have energy for offspring so offspring are hatched much more developed

Bird eggs

11

_________ - Mammals, eggs with no stored energy

Eggs with no yolk

12

-Stages of development-

Step 1)
Sperm and _________ are formed and _________ within the parents

-eggs
-mature

13

-Stages of development-

Step 2)
_________ begins - As the sperm starts to penetrate the egg and is completed when the _________ nucleus fuses with the _________ nucleus

-Fertilizations
-sperm
-egg

14

-Stages of development-

Step 3)
Next there are many repeated _________ divisions

mitotic

15

-Stages of development-

Step 4)
Eventually the _________ begins to increase in size and three (_________) germ layers form

i. Endoderm (within) - Middle, center of embryo, develops into digestive system
ii. Mesoderm - Between other two layers, develop into skeletal and muscle systems
iii. Ectoderm - Outside, becomes skin

-embryo
-embryonic layers

16

-Stages of development-

Step 4)
Eventually the embryo begins to increase in size and three (embryonic layers) germ layers form

i. _________ - Middle, center of embryo, develops into digestive system
ii. _________ - Between other two layers, develop into skeletal and muscle systems
iii. _________ - Outside, becomes skin

-Endoderm (within)
-Mesoderm
-Ectoderm

17

i. Endoderm - Middle, center of _________, develops into digestive system

ii. Mesoderm - Between other two layers, develop into _________ and muscle systems

iii. Ectoderm - Outside, becomes _________

-embryo
-skeletal
-skin

18

-Stages of development-

Step 5)
The _________ layers develop into - Tissue and into _________

-germ
-organs

19

-Stages of development-

Step 6)
Finally the _________ acquire - Their functions

-organs

20

-Stages of development-

Step __)
Sperm and eggs are formed and mature within the parents

1

21

-Stages of development-

Step __)
Fertilizations begins - As the sperm starts to penetrate the egg and is completed when the sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus

2

22

-Stages of development-

Step __)
Next there are many repeated mitotic divisions

3

23

-Stages of development-

Step __)
Eventually the embryo begins to increase in size and three (embryonic layers) germ layers form

4

24

-Stages of development-

Step __)
The germ layers develop into - Tissue and into organs

5

25

-Stages of development-

Step __)
Finally the organs acquire - Their functions

6

26

Fertilization to birth

1. Fertilization

2. Only one sperm will successfully enter the _________ of the egg cell (_________)

-cytoplasm
-first there

27

-Implantation-

1. In the first few days after - The _________ moves down into the uterus

2. By the time the zygote reaches the uterus it is a solid mass of cells - and is considered an _________

3. After the first week - Embryo becomes attached to _________ wall

-zygote
-embryo
-uterus

28

_________ -

1. In the first few days after - The zygote moves down into the uterus

2. By the time the zygote reaches the uterus it is a solid mass of cells - and is considered an embryo

3. After the first week - Embryo becomes attached to uterus wall

Implantation

29

_________ - Organ of exchange between developing embryo and the mother made of fetal and material tissue

Placenta

30

Placenta - Organ of exchange between developing _________ and the mother made of fetal and material _________

-embryo
-tissue

31

Embryonic/fetal growth - (__ months each in humans)

3

32

-Embryonic/fetal growth-

_________-

i. First 1/3 of pregnancy

ii. Time of rapid growth

iii. By the time this trimester is over all of the major organs are formed including arms, legs, fingers, toes

First trimester

33

-Embryonic/fetal growth-

--First trimester

i. First ___ of pregnancy

ii. Time of rapid _________

iii. By the time this trimester is over all of the major _________ are formed including arms, legs, fingers, toes

-1/3
-growth
-organs

34

-Embryonic/fetal growth-

_________-

i. Middle third of pregnancy

ii. Development slows but continues

iii. Organs begin to acquire their functions

Second trimester

35

-Embryonic/fetal growth-

--Second trimester

i. Middle third of _________

ii. _________ slows but continues

iii. Organs begin to _________ their functions

-pregnancy
-Development
-acquire

36

-Embryonic/fetal growth-

_________-

i. Last third of pregnancy

ii. Middle of this trimester is earliest birth can take place with survival on its own

Third trimester

37

-Embryonic/fetal growth-

--Third trimester

i. Last _________ of pregnancy

ii. Middle of this trimester is earliest birth can take place with _________ on its own

-third
-survival

38

-Stages of postnatal development-

1) _________ - First two weeks of life

New born

39

-Stages of postnatal development-

2) _________ - From two weeks old to two years old

Infant

40

-Stages of postnatal development-

3) _________ - From two years until beginning of puberty

Child

41

-Stages of postnatal development-

4) _________ - Individual actively going through puberty , acquiring sexual maturity

Pubescent

42

-Stages of postnatal development-

5) _________ - Time immediately after puberty where individual is figuring out what happened during puberty

Adolescent

43

-Stages of postnatal development-

6) _________

Adult

44

-Stages of postnatal development-

7) No longer _________, only aging

developing

45

-Aging Process-

1. Slowing of _________

2. Slowing or loss of organ function

3. Loss of _________ tone

4. Loss of hair, teeth, skin elasticity, memory

-metabolism
-muscle

46

-Aging Process-

1. Slowing of metabolism

2. Slowing or loss of _________ function

3. Loss of muscle tone

4. Loss of hair, _________, skin elasticity, _________

-organ
-teeth
-memory

47

The causes of aging are not known, influenced by..

1. _________
2. _________

-Environment
-Genetics