Sugar goes to the —-, which releases ——-, which serves as the key to open —– —– so —– can enter.
Most accurate lab value for diabetes is —-
> 6.5% = diabetes
A RBC lives approximately —- months.
How often should blood sugar be monitored during pregnancy?
6-7 x’s day
DOC for diabetics during pregnancy?
insulin (even if they take a diff. diabetic med when not pregnant)
Diabetes is managed by what three factors:
- Diet/Physical Activity
- Oral (non-insulin) meds
Exercise and diet can reduce T2DM by —–
How many types of insulin are there?
Types of Diabets:
Which type of diabetes is most common?
T2DM (95% of cases)
T1DM (5% of cases)
—— is actually an autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of —- cells.
DKA means —- —– —– and is most commonly associated with which type?
—– is common in Peds and results in ketones in blood (acidosis).
DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis)
Which type of diabetes results in a distinct breath odor?
T1DM due to the DKA
breath will smell fruity or like nail polish remover
HHNS means —– and is most common w/ which type of diabetes?
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketonic syndrome
blood sugar is high, but there are no ketones in blood (it’s not acidic)
Diabetes is the number one cause of —— in America. This is an example of a — —- complication.
Sensory Neuropathy is a — —- complication of diabetes. How is it determined?
early sign is a loss of sense of vibration in periphery
Diabetes Mellitus is derived from the Greek word for —– and the Latin word for —–.
What is the primary defect in TIDM?
destruction of pancreatic beta cells
What are the principle short term consequences of diabetes?
—— develops when HYPERglycemia becomes severe and is allowed to persist.
—— is the leading cause of death amongst people w/ diabetes.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
What causes vascular damage in diabetics?
basement membranes of capillaries thickens, causing blood flow in these narrow vessels to fall
The most common cause of end-stage renal disease is —–.
diabetic damage to kidneys
Insulin resistance and inappropriate insulin secretion is the primary defect of —-
Blood glucose levels of —– clients are typically more stable than —– clients
Symptoms of T1DM
- weight loss
Why does blood thicken w/ DKA and HHNS?
large amounts of glucose are excreted in urine, carrying a large vol. of water with it
This increases the hematocrit (b/c blood vol. falls) and the blood becomes very viscus
How is DKA diff. from HHNS?
1) DKA has ketones (so it has sweet smell in urine and breath)
2) DKA is mainly T1DM while HHNS is T2DM
S/S of HYPOglycemia:
- fainting, fatigue, or lightheadedness
sympathetic stuff (anxiety, blurred vision, etc)
Why do Beta Blockers mask hypoglycemia?
b/c the initial signs of hypoglycema are sympathetic stuff (sweating, blurred vision, shaky, etc.)
beta blockers block adrenergic receptors, preventing these things from happening
Fasting Plasma Glucose greater than or equal to —- means diabetes.
Casual Plasma Glucose greater than or equal to ——— means diabetes.
WHEN accompanied w/ other signs/symptoms of diabetes
Casual Plasma Glucose means…
testing at any time of day without regard to meals
HgbA1c measures ——.
blood glucose over 2-3 months
thus if it’s high, we know that it’s been high for a while (ie: we KNOW they have diabetes
> or = to 6.5% means diabetes
Which blood test is the most reliable over a 2-3 month span?
What is the only exceptable oral medication for diabetes while pregnant?
(normally oral meds must be discontinued and only take insulin while pregnant; oral meds can be continued after pregnancy ends)
Why are oral medications better for T2DM?
because the problem w/ T1DM is they have NO insulin…thus insulin is the only thing that can work with them
Which cells in the body produce insulin?
Pancreatic Beta cells
they are destroyed in T1DM, which is why T1DM clients require insulin injections instead of PO meds that only decrease glucose from rising