Test 2 - Overview of Diabetes (Josh) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 - Overview of Diabetes (Josh) Deck (39)
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1
Q

Sugar goes to the —-, which releases ——-, which serves as the key to open —– —– so —– can enter.

A

pancreas
insulin
muscle cells
sugar

2
Q

Most accurate lab value for diabetes is —-

A

HgbA1c

> 6.5% = diabetes

3
Q

A RBC lives approximately —- months.

A

3

4
Q

How often should blood sugar be monitored during pregnancy?

A

6-7 x’s day

5
Q

DOC for diabetics during pregnancy?

A

insulin (even if they take a diff. diabetic med when not pregnant)

6
Q

Diabetes is managed by what three factors:

A
  • Diet/Physical Activity
  • Oral (non-insulin) meds
  • Insulin
7
Q

Exercise and diet can reduce T2DM by —–

A

60%

8
Q

How many types of insulin are there?

A

7

9
Q

Types of Diabets:

A

T1DM

T2DM

10
Q

Which type of diabetes is most common?

Least common?

A

T2DM (95% of cases)

T1DM (5% of cases)

11
Q

—— is actually an autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of —- cells.

A

T1DM

Beta cells

12
Q

DKA means —- —– —– and is most commonly associated with which type?

A

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

T1DM

13
Q

—– is common in Peds and results in ketones in blood (acidosis).

A

DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis)

14
Q

Which type of diabetes results in a distinct breath odor?

A

T1DM due to the DKA

breath will smell fruity or like nail polish remover

15
Q

HHNS means —– and is most common w/ which type of diabetes?

A

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketonic syndrome

blood sugar is high, but there are no ketones in blood (it’s not acidic)

16
Q

Diabetes is the number one cause of —— in America. This is an example of a — —- complication.

A

blindness

long-term

17
Q

Sensory Neuropathy is a — —- complication of diabetes. How is it determined?

A

long-term

early sign is a loss of sense of vibration in periphery

18
Q

Diabetes Mellitus is derived from the Greek word for —– and the Latin word for —–.

A

fountain

honey

19
Q

What is the primary defect in TIDM?

A

destruction of pancreatic beta cells

20
Q

What are the principle short term consequences of diabetes?

A

Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia

21
Q

—— develops when HYPERglycemia becomes severe and is allowed to persist.

A

Ketoacidosis

22
Q

—— is the leading cause of death amongst people w/ diabetes.

A

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

23
Q

What causes vascular damage in diabetics?

A

basement membranes of capillaries thickens, causing blood flow in these narrow vessels to fall

24
Q

The most common cause of end-stage renal disease is —–.

A

diabetic damage to kidneys

requires dialysis

25
Q

Insulin resistance and inappropriate insulin secretion is the primary defect of —-

A

T2DM

26
Q

Blood glucose levels of —– clients are typically more stable than —– clients

A

T2DM

T1DM

27
Q

Symptoms of T1DM

A
  • polyurea
  • polydipsia
  • polyphagia
  • weight loss
28
Q

Why does blood thicken w/ DKA and HHNS?

A

large amounts of glucose are excreted in urine, carrying a large vol. of water with it

This increases the hematocrit (b/c blood vol. falls) and the blood becomes very viscus

29
Q

How is DKA diff. from HHNS?

A

1) DKA has ketones (so it has sweet smell in urine and breath)
2) DKA is mainly T1DM while HHNS is T2DM

30
Q

S/S of HYPOglycemia:

A
  • sweating
  • hunger
  • fainting, fatigue, or lightheadedness
  • n/v

sympathetic stuff (anxiety, blurred vision, etc)

31
Q

Why do Beta Blockers mask hypoglycemia?

A

b/c the initial signs of hypoglycema are sympathetic stuff (sweating, blurred vision, shaky, etc.)

beta blockers block adrenergic receptors, preventing these things from happening

32
Q

Fasting Plasma Glucose greater than or equal to —- means diabetes.

A

126 mg/dL

33
Q

Casual Plasma Glucose greater than or equal to ——— means diabetes.

A

200 mg/dL

WHEN accompanied w/ other signs/symptoms of diabetes

34
Q

Casual Plasma Glucose means…

A

testing at any time of day without regard to meals

35
Q

HgbA1c measures ——.

A

blood glucose over 2-3 months

thus if it’s high, we know that it’s been high for a while (ie: we KNOW they have diabetes

> or = to 6.5% means diabetes

36
Q

Which blood test is the most reliable over a 2-3 month span?

A

HgbA1c

37
Q

What is the only exceptable oral medication for diabetes while pregnant?

A

Metformin

(normally oral meds must be discontinued and only take insulin while pregnant; oral meds can be continued after pregnancy ends)

38
Q

Why are oral medications better for T2DM?

A

because the problem w/ T1DM is they have NO insulin…thus insulin is the only thing that can work with them

39
Q

Which cells in the body produce insulin?

A

Pancreatic Beta cells

they are destroyed in T1DM, which is why T1DM clients require insulin injections instead of PO meds that only decrease glucose from rising