Flashcards in Test 4: Psychological Disorders Deck (62)
major depression + hypomanic episode (not severe enough to cause marked impairment)
Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder
is characterized by at least 4 mood episodes.
-abnormally high state of exhilaration, feeling powerful, full of plans based on delusional ideas, impulsive high risk behavior.
- Distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week
-a condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years.
-dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
-the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that, at different times, take control of the individual’s behavior. Inability to recall important personal information too extensive to be ordinary forgetfulness.
-Emerges as a means to cope with trauma
-People generally unaware of “alters” until therapy
-Controversial rise in diagnosis generated by clinicians, true rates are probably low
is characterized by auditory hallucinations and delusions about persecution or conspiracy. However, unlike those who have other subtypes of the disease, these individuals show relatively normal cognitive functioning.
involves a disturbance in movement. Some might stop moving (catatonic stupor) or experience radically increased movement (catatonic excitement). Also, these individuals might assume odd positions, continuously repeat what others are saying (echolalia) or imitate another person’s movement (echopraxia).
is a disruption of thought processes, so much so that daily activities (e.g., showering, brushing teeth) are impaired. Sufferers frequently exhibit inappropriate or erratic emotions. For instance, they might laugh at a sad occasion. Also, their speech becomes disorganized and nonsensical.
includes several symptoms from the above types, but the symptoms don’t exactly fit the criteria for the other kinds of schizophrenia.
is diagnosed when a person no longer exhibits symptoms or these symptoms aren't as severe.
“personality loses its unity”, a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior.
Five Types of disorder based on primary characteristics
Schizophrenia Positive Symptoms
additions to normal behavior
-Disorganized, incoherent speech
-Grossly disorganized inappropriate behaviors
Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms
loss of normal traits/behaviors
-Can’t speak fluently
-Cant care for self
false belief system & thoughts, often bizarre and grandiose, maintained despite irrationality.
Identity, paranoid, thoughts inserted into head by someone else, broadcasts over TV, celebrity loves them. NO insight they have lost control of their minds
false sensory experience that feels real
Hear voices, see things, smell things
Common to commit suicide to avoid voices
Disorganized, incoherent speech
ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topics.
Word salad: illogical jumble of ideas
Grossly disorganized inappropriate behaviors
Inappropriate for situation, ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbance
Childlike silliness, violent agitation, collect garbage, wear 3 coats
What causes Schizophrenia
-Excess of dopamine in brain
-See chart, 1% lifetime risk in general population, 50% identical twins, 40% two Sz parents, 12% one Sz parent
Brain Structure Differences
-Enlarged ventricles, ↑ brain tissue loss over time
-Disturbed Home Environment Example:
-Sz bio mom + disturbed adoptive home = high risk of Sz
-Sz bio mom + healthy adoptive home = moderate risk
-No Sz bio mom + disturbed adoptive home = low risk
Malnutrition, viral infection, birth complications : ↑ risk
disorder characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning.
-10 different PDs
Paranoid Personality Disorder
a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’ motives are interpreted as malevolent. Delusions of being persecuted.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression. Loner, prefers to be alone.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior. Talk to self or not respond in communication. Might be mild form of Schizophrenia
Antisocial Personality Disorder
pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, present in childhood. Impulsive, less sensitive to fear.
-Serial killers; con men; abuse others emotionally, physically or financially; break the law,
-Psychopath: inability to feel normal emotions, no remorse, no shame, guilt.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy. Preoccupied with fantasies of their own importance, power, and brilliance. Demand special treatment.
Borderline Personality Disorder
pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects; marked impulsivity.
-Idealize then devalue partner, try to avoid real or imagined abandonment
-Cutters, threaten to commit suicide
-Emotionally volatile, anger to euphoria
-I hate you, don't leave
Histrionic Personality Disorder
pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking.
-Operatic, uses sexuality, provocative dress, exaggerated illness. Overly lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, flirtatious. Emotions as if on stage.