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Flashcards in Test 4: Psychological Disorders Deck (62)
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Bipolar II

major depression + hypomanic episode (not severe enough to cause marked impairment)


Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

is characterized by at least 4 mood episodes.


Manic Episode

-abnormally high state of exhilaration, feeling powerful, full of plans based on delusional ideas, impulsive high risk behavior.
- Distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week


Dissociative Disorder

-a condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years.
-dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
-dissociative fugue
-dissociative amnesia.


Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

-the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that, at different times, take control of the individual’s behavior. Inability to recall important personal information too extensive to be ordinary forgetfulness.
-Emerges as a means to cope with trauma
-People generally unaware of “alters” until therapy
-Controversial rise in diagnosis generated by clinicians, true rates are probably low


Paranoid Type

is characterized by auditory hallucinations and delusions about persecution or conspiracy. However, unlike those who have other subtypes of the disease, these individuals show relatively normal cognitive functioning.


Catatonic Type

involves a disturbance in movement. Some might stop moving (catatonic stupor) or experience radically increased movement (catatonic excitement). Also, these individuals might assume odd positions, continuously repeat what others are saying (echolalia) or imitate another person’s movement (echopraxia).


Disorganized Type

is a disruption of thought processes, so much so that daily activities (e.g., showering, brushing teeth) are impaired. Sufferers frequently exhibit inappropriate or erratic emotions. For instance, they might laugh at a sad occasion. Also, their speech becomes disorganized and nonsensical.


Undifferentiated Type

includes several symptoms from the above types, but the symptoms don’t exactly fit the criteria for the other kinds of schizophrenia.


Residual Type

is diagnosed when a person no longer exhibits symptoms or these symptoms aren't as severe.



“personality loses its unity”, a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior.
Five Types of disorder based on primary characteristics


Schizophrenia Positive Symptoms

additions to normal behavior
-Disorganized, incoherent speech
-Grossly disorganized inappropriate behaviors


Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms

loss of normal traits/behaviors
-Emotional flatness
-Can’t speak fluently
-Cant care for self
-Catatonic stupor



false belief system & thoughts, often bizarre and grandiose, maintained despite irrationality.
Identity, paranoid, thoughts inserted into head by someone else, broadcasts over TV, celebrity loves them. NO insight they have lost control of their minds



false sensory experience that feels real
Hear voices, see things, smell things
Common to commit suicide to avoid voices


Disorganized, incoherent speech

ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topics.
Word salad: illogical jumble of ideas


Grossly disorganized inappropriate behaviors

Inappropriate for situation, ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbance
Childlike silliness, violent agitation, collect garbage, wear 3 coats


What causes Schizophrenia

Dopamine Theory
-Excess of dopamine in brain

Genetic Predisposition
-See chart, 1% lifetime risk in general population, 50% identical twins, 40% two Sz parents, 12% one Sz parent

Brain Structure Differences
-Enlarged ventricles, ↑ brain tissue loss over time

Diathesis-stress Model
-Disturbed Home Environment Example:
-Sz bio mom + disturbed adoptive home = high risk of Sz
-Sz bio mom + healthy adoptive home = moderate risk
-No Sz bio mom + disturbed adoptive home = low risk

Prenatal Environment
Malnutrition, viral infection, birth complications : ↑ risk


Personality Disorder

disorder characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning.
-10 different PDs


Odd/eccentric cluster

-Paranoid PD
-Schizoid PD
-Schizotypal PD


Dramatic/erratic cluster

-Antisocial PD
-Narcissistic PD
-Borderline PD
-Histrionic PD


Anxious/inhibited cluster

-Avoidant PD
-Dependent PD
-Obsessive-Compulsive PD


Paranoid Personality Disorder

a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’ motives are interpreted as malevolent. Delusions of being persecuted.


Schizoid Personality Disorder

pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression. Loner, prefers to be alone.


Schizotypal Personality Disorder

pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior. Talk to self or not respond in communication. Might be mild form of Schizophrenia


Antisocial Personality Disorder

pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, present in childhood. Impulsive, less sensitive to fear.
-Serial killers; con men; abuse others emotionally, physically or financially; break the law,
-Psychopath: inability to feel normal emotions, no remorse, no shame, guilt.


Narcissistic Personality Disorder

a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy. Preoccupied with fantasies of their own importance, power, and brilliance. Demand special treatment.


Borderline Personality Disorder

pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects; marked impulsivity.
-Idealize then devalue partner, try to avoid real or imagined abandonment
-Cutters, threaten to commit suicide
-Emotionally volatile, anger to euphoria
-I hate you, don't leave


Histrionic Personality Disorder

pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking.
-Operatic, uses sexuality, provocative dress, exaggerated illness. Overly lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, flirtatious. Emotions as if on stage.


Avoidant Personality Disorder

pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Wants social contact but fears criticism and rejection so avoid social situations.