Unit 12 Flashcards Preview

APUSH > Unit 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 12 Deck (41):
1

monetary assistance usually paid to individuals or businesses by government to reduce the costs of purchases

subsidy

2

making everything the same (like gauges of railroad track)

standardization

3

major railway line between large cities

trunk line

4

one of the 1st businessmen to build trunk lines and standardize RR tracks (NY to Chicago)

Cornelius Vanderbilt

5

process by which blasted air through molten iron made stronger steel

Bessemer Process

6

steel magnate whose steel company used vertical integration to control every phase of the steelmaking process; became major philanthropist after selling company

Andrew Carnegie

7

someone who gives away their own money to charity

philanthropist

8

businessman who bought Carnegie Steel in 1900 for $400 million and formed US Steel

J. P. Morgan

9

largest company in the world in 1900; 1st billion dollar company

US Steel

10

formed Standard Oil and utilized horizontal integration

John D. Rockefeller

11

process by which one company buys out all other companies within the same industry (example: Standard Oil buys up all other oil companies)

horizontal integration

12

process by which one company buys up all other companies RELATED to the production of the parent company's product (example: Carnegie Steel buys up iron ore mining company, railway company, and steel distributors)

vertical integration

13

negative term used to describe rich capitalists who were supposedly "robbing" the common man by making millions off products they sold

Robber Barons

14

Prohibited any “combination” or “conspiracy” that restrained trade or commerce; never enforced

Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890)

15

idea that said business should NOT be regulated by govt, BUT instead by laws of supply and demand

laissez faire (“let it be”

16

idea that said rich people were more “fit” of human species; poor people were “unfit”; said welfare would hurt human species by preserving the “unfit”

Social Darwinism

17

idea that said God wanted rich to be rich; proof was that He gave them superior work ethic

“Gospel of Wealth”

18

invented telegraph

Samuel Morse

19

invented telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

20

invented phonograph, light bulb, generator; set up research facility at Menlo Park, NJ

Thomas Edison

21

idea that to increase efficiency, large jobs were broken into small steps and workers did one thing ALL day

Scientific management/Taylorism

22

union that tried to unite all workers in USA and won 8 hour day for federal govt employees

National Labor Union, 1866

23

union led by Terence Powderley; desired socialist society (more radical); included African-Americans and women

Knights of Labor, 1869

24

union led by Samuel Gompers; concentrated on wages and working conditions (less radical); skilled, white, males

American Federation of Labor

25

riot of radical workers in Chicago in 1886 that caused decline in Knights of Labor

Haymarket Riot

26

pressures workers into accepting management’s offer by locking workers out of job

Lockouts

27

circulating names of pro-union people so they can’t be hired in industry

Blacklists

28

contract that said workers if workers wanted a job, they couldn’t join union

Yellow-dog contracts

29

private guards hired by management to break strikes by force

Pinkerton Guards

30

strike of Pittsburgh steelworkers in 1892 broken by Pinkerton Guards hired by Andrew Carnegie

Homestead Strike, 1892

31

strike by sleeping car workers broken because federal govt intervened on side of management

Pullman Strike, 1894

32

movement of African-Americans north between 1890 and 1930

Great Migration (1890-1930)

33

tightly organized groups of politicians in cities that concentrated on getting party members elected and controlling city politics

Political “machines”

34

Democratic machine boss in New York City in late 19th century; stole tax money and was exposed by Thomas Nast

Boss Tweed

35

political cartoonist of late 19th century

Thomas Nast

36

community houses run usually by young Protestant women that provided social services for poor immigrants in cities

Settlement houses

37

ran Hull House (settlement house in Chicago)

Jane Addams

38

Applying Christian principles to social problems (God wants you to help the poor)

Social Gospel

39

newspaper magnate who sensationalized stories to sell papers (practice yellow journalism)

William Randolph Hearst

40

newspaper magnate who practiced yellow journalism; major literary prize is named after him

Joseph Pulitzer

41

term for industrial age just prior to 1900 (coined by Mark Twain); meant to criticize an age which look good on outside but had problems underneath

Gilded Age