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Flashcards in Unit 8 Euro Deck (26):
1

agricultural system whereby land was divided into strips; common grazing land was created; cultivation was decided by village elders

open-field system

2

the major problem limiting agricultural production up to 17th century; depletion of nitrogen

soil exhaustion

3

the concept of allowing a field to lay fallow, followed by at least two years of planting

crop rotation

4

not using a field for a year to allow it to replenish nitrogen

fallow

5

scavenging for leftover grain on ground after harvest; early form of social welfare

gleaning

6

progressive elimination of the fallow between 1650 and 1800

agricultural revolution

7

literally the fencing in of lands; done by those who believed in new scientific and efficient methods of farming

enclosure

8

country on continent that led in implementing new methods of agricultural production

Netherlands

9

choosing certain animals to mate in order to improve the breed

selective breeding

10

British aristocrat that was obsessed with turnips and their ability to replenish the soil

Charles Townshend

11

implemented scientific ways of planting

Jethro Tull

12

Landless laborers who worked the land for wealthy landowners

rural proletariat

13

System whereby poor people in rural areas supplemented their income from farming by making things in their homes

cottage industry

14

when merchants loaned rural poor raw materials to process into finished goods

"putting out"

15

term that described the idea that rural workers often didn't work early in the week, only to work frantically later in the week to meet the deadlines of merchant capitalists

"Holy Monday"

16

trade associations that monitored and restricted trade and production

guild

17

System of economic regulations aimed at increasing state power; Goal was to create favorable balance of trade

Mercantilism

18

stated foreign goods must be carried on British ships with British crews OR on ships of the country making the product

Navigation Acts

19

treaty in which Britain gained Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay territory and the West African slave trade

Peace of Utrecht

20

treaty in which Britain gained Quebec, French lands east of Mississippi River, Florida (from Spain)and most French holdings in India

Treaty of Paris

21

Spanish monarch that implemented numerous effective reforms from 1700-1746

Philip V

22

Spanish born in the New World

creoles

23

theory that states economic self-interest actually created wealth for EVERYONE and that governments should implement laissez faire practices

economic liberalism

24

idea that the government should interfere in the economy minimally

laissez faire

25

economist who criticized and challenged the economic theory of mercantilism

Adam Smith

26

written by Adam Smith; challenged mercantilism

Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations