Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Deck (484)
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31

spotted owl predators

red-tailed hawk, great-horned owls, goshawks, marten

32

spotted owl nest

no nest, lay 2 eggs on twigs or in cavities of large conifers

33

spotted owl status

endangered (COSEWIC)
declining ~20%/yr
extinction probably inevitable

34

bald eagle plumage

4th or 5th year

35

bald eagle characteristic

primarily scavenging, piscivory
live 20-30years

36

bald eagle breeding

largest nest of any NA bird, 6000kg, 6m deep, multi year
35 day incubation
12 week pre-fledging period

37

# of west coast bald eagles

50,000 BC and Alaska

38

Bald Eagle dominant diet

autumn- salmon
winter - carrion
spring - herring, eulachon
summer- birds

39

carrion

dead and decaying flesh of an animal

40

eulachon

small anadromous ocean fish, smelt found along Pacific coast of NA, N Cali- Alaska.
unusually high in lipid content

41

bald eagle and gull, Barkley Sound study

bald eagle abundance peaked during incubation/hatching of gull eggs - influences activity of gulls and could impact reproductive success

42

Murre and Cormorant abundance based on peregrine falcon, triangle island

highest abundance when peregrine falcon were near (nesting nearby), when away bald eagle and gulls lead to major decrease in nesting/reproductive success
top-down effect of top predator

43

eyrie/aerie

the nest of a bird (such as an eagle or hawk) built high up on a cliff or on the top of a mountain

44

bald eagle kleptoparasitism

pirates ducks captured by peregrine falcons, peregrines must increase kill rate (0.05/hr - 0.18/hr) to compensate

45

Urban Barred Owl

in BC 30-40yrs, succesful in urban area b/c of rat prevalence

46

Barred owl range expansion

displacing Northern Spotted Owl, major habitat/diet overlap

47

Barred owl removal

lethally removed, spotted owl population recovered in that area

48

Cooper's Hawk diet

small-med size birds = majority of diet, American Robin, European Starling (invasive), House Sparrow (invasive)
taking advantage of invasives

49

fraser delta raptor poisoning

carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in wet, low pH conditions of Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors months after application of the pesticides

50

# BC nesting seabirds

15 species
5-6million
500 nest sites

51

best evidence supporting tetrapods on land 7400mya

fossil tracks
molecular data ambiguous
limbs occurred before move to land

52

the transition from dinosaurs to birds is characterized by

NOTHING
there is no transition
birds are dinosaurs

53

what is the major characteristic that allowed the evolution of flight in bids

low wing loading
birds are not the only animal that fly's

54

loons are most closely related to

cormorant, albatross, pelican
aquatic/seabirds

55

changes in seabird abundance from 1980 - present

25% reduction in piscivores
75% reduction in pigeon guillemot

56

how do we measure changes in seabird abundance on our coast

no long term records
sediment cores
tree cores

57

sediment cores for determining changes in seabird abundance

guano reduction

58

The Guano Era

1845-1870
US annexed SP islands to extract guano, traded extensively for fertilizer

59

results of measuring bird abundance with tree cores

significant decrease in tree ring width in the area where trees were found to have burrows, likely due to decrease in burrowing bird density, decrease in guano (nutrients)

60

one problem with the tree ring method

small trees have lower N demand, can be picky, higher isotopic fractionation (this is the centre rings of the tree)