Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Deck (484)
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61

Gill nets

widespread (legal and illegal)
1million km of gillnet/yr, 300km/day
abandoned nets
In 1980's asian commercial fishing used gill nets to 8m depth

62

seabirds and gillnets

100,000 - 715,000 drowned/yr
60% shearwater
25% tufted puffin

63

seabird-boat collision during darkness

largest impact - nocturnal fliers
bird attracted to light (law) and hit mast or rigging @ high speed

64

nocturnal fliers

auklets, murrelets, petrels

65

boat collision bird kill

1 night ~35petrels on deck, more in water?
1 40ft boat in Aleutian chain during spring snow storm had a 30,000 alcid, petrels kill in one night

66

offshore drilling and seabirds

routine blowouts- burn off natural gas extracted w/ oil (can be seen from space), seabirds fly into it

67

offshore drilling birdkill

10-100 puffins and murres/night/platform

68

oil tanker spill

Exxon Valdez
250,000 birds killed, 90species, 75% murres

69

freighters and seabirds, oil pollution in Newfoundland

1998-2000 average 315,000 murres and dovekies killed annually from illegal discharges of oil
incidence of oil pollution among the highest in the world

70

Cormorants: the world's most hated bird?

people killing them because they eat fish
500,000 killed since 1998
won't fix their perceived problem- prey are set by carrying capacity

71

Commercial fishing

depletion of herring population, sardine population, chum, huge decrease in estimated escapement
wide impacts

72

escapement

portion of anadromous fish population that escapes commercial/recreational fisheries and reaches freshwater spawning grounds

73

where does salmon carcass go

raven, crow, bear, marten, eagle, gull, invertebrates, plants

74

gulls and salmon run

most abundant vertebrate during salmon migration
found to consume ~20% of salmon carcass biomass and ~30% of salmon eggs

75

fishing down the foodweb

puts us more in competition with seabirds

76

importance of salmon return

highly correlated w/ many species abundance
important for winter 'bulk up'

77

passerines and salmon run

salmon carcass-- insects-- songbirds

78

alien species that impact seabird colonies

Norway rat
Raccoon
Fox

79

importance of primary productivity distribution

highly correlated w/ seabird distribution
highest in N hemisphere
affected by T anomalies

80

T shift and Cassin's Auklet

less successful in warm water
match-mismatch hypothesis

81

match-mismatch hypothesis

prey timing key factor in success
climate changes alter trophic interactions
T shift-- bloom shift (timing)-- not available at usual bird nesting time

82

BC mammals #

~150 species

83

BC mammals, native vs. introduce #

native - 136 species
introduced - 13species

84

BC mammals, terrestrial vs. marine #

terrestrial - 120 species
marine - 30 species

85

Mammal skull fenestra

one fenestra
synapsid

86

basal tetrapod fenestra

no fenestra
anapsid
acanthostega

87

BC mammal orders

Carnivora - canines, bears,..
Primates - aboriginals
Rodentia - mouse, squirrel
Lagomorpha - Hare
Insectivora - Shrew
Chiroptera - Bats
Artiodactyl - ungulates
Marsupial - opossum

88

most diverse group of mammals on the planet

Rodentia
squirrel, chipmunk, beaver, mice, gopher, porcupine

89

synapsid origin

carboniferous

90

synapsid radiation

first group of amniotes that diversified (before diapsid)