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Flashcards in Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Deck (484)
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181

# rabbits

~70

182

# insectivora

~400

183

# flying lemurs

4

184

# chiroptera

1000

185

# carnivora

274

186

# cetacea

80

187

# Artiodactyla

~200

188

artiodactyla

even toed- pigs, hippo, deer, cattle

189

perissodactyla

odd-toed - horse, rhino, tapir

190

results of orogeny

vast rainshadows, reduced T (hot house - ice house) = first grasslands (Miocene)

191

Miocene grasslands

diversification of grass-dwelling ungulates (horse, antelope, elephants)

192

start of Pleistocene

gradual cooling, formation of icecaps, major northern hemisphere glaciation

193

mammals and marsupials

parallel adaptive radiation
common species in each group, ecologically equivalent
burrower, anteater, mouse, climber, glider, cat, wolf... not sea animals

194

what happened after dinosaur extinction

niche space opened for large carnivores (mostly mammals, some large carnivorous birds)

195

when were NA and SA separrated

from Jurassic - Late Cainozoic (100my)
independent, separated diversification

196

Panamanian Isthmus

3my, connection between NA/SA
allow interchange of species

197

GAI

great american interchange
asymmetric interchange
immigrants into NA mostly did not persist
50% of SA immigrants persisted, displaced native species

198

why was GAI asymmetric

NH colder

199

North American Pleistocene fauna

persist throughout glaciation
at the time NA was as diverse as Serenghetti

200

some animals in NA pleistocene fauna

giant sloth, short faced bear, giant polar bear, california tapirs, peccaries, american lion, giant condor, american cheetah, sabre-toothed cats, dire wolves, gray wolf, camelids, llamas, bison, moose, ox, horses, mammoths

201

what happened to NA pleistocene fauna

impact event - extraterrestrial glass spheres
fell in to caves and mummified- karstography, constant humidity (no bacterial degradation)

202

La Brea Geology

Rancho La Brea tar pits (LA)
so much oil in ground- sealed to surface- rain sits on top, looks like pond
prey get captured, predators come and get trapped too

203

La Brea skeletons

59 mammal species
135 bird species
skeletons completely in tact, but never together

204

Pleistocene overkill

NA 100,000-12,000ya: 45genera over 40kg
10,000y -present: 12 genera
humans overkill?

205

overkill hypothesis

extinctions correspond well with first significant evidence of human presence. human colonization dominant driver of extinction over climate events. very certain of results.

206

Puma concolor

Cougar

207

cougar characteristics

45-80kg
3m
nocturnal, solitary, ambush predator
jump 6m vertical, 13m horizontally
50km/h
largest back legs of any cat

208

cougar prey

>95% - deer/elk
~1 per week

209

cougar density

4000 in Canada
3500 BC
1/200km^2

210

cougar vs. wolf

interaction common
both predator and prey