15.1.2 Mood Disorders 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15.1.2 Mood Disorders 3 Deck (25):
1

Many people respond well on ____, either because of spontaneous recovery over time or because of the expectation that the pill induced.

placebos

2

____ patients particularly likely to respond to placebos.

Younger

3

Only for people with ____ ____ to the antidepressant drugs show meaningful advantage over placebos.

severe depression

4

An alternative to the depressant drugs is ____. Reviews of the research literature find that antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy are about equally effective for treating all levels of depression, from mild to severe, with three exceptions.

psychotherapy

5

Exception one, the drugs work better for ____, a long-term, almost lifelong condition of unhappy mood.

dysthymia

6

Exception two, antidepressants are generally ineffective for patients who have suffered ____ or ____ during early childhood or patients with multiple psychological disorders.

abuse or neglect

7

Exception three, psychotherapy is more likely to have long-term benefits, reducing the likelihood of a ____ months or years after the end of treatment.

relapse

8

The effects of antidepressants and those of psychotherapy overlap more than we might have guessed. Brain scans show that antidepressants and psychotherapy increase ____ in the same brain areas.

metabolism

9

When people do not respond well to drugs or psychotherapy, one possibility is treatment through an electrically induced seizure, known as ____ ____ (ECT).

electroconvulsive therapy

10

ECT does indeed ____ depression in many cases.

relieve

11

ECT today is used only with informed consent, usually for patients with ____ ____ who have not responded to antidepressant drugs.

severe depression

12

ECT is usually applied every other day for about two weeks. Patients are given ____ ____ or anaesthetics to minimise discomfort and the possibility of injury.

muscle relaxants

13

The most common side effect of ECT is ____ ____.

memory loss

14

The other serious drawback to ECT is the high risk of ____ into another episode of depression within a few months.

relapsing

15

After ECT has relieved depression, the usual strategy is to try to ____ ____ by means of drugs, psychotherapy, or periodic ECT treatments.

prevent relapse

16

Unlike antidepressant drugs, ECT increases the proliferation of new neurons in the ____.

hippocampus

17

A similar treatment is repetitive ____ ____ ____. An intense magnetic field is applied to the scalp, stimulating the axons near the surface of the brain.

transcranial magnetic stimulation

18

Almost everyone with depression has ____ ____, and the sleep problems generally precede the mood changes.

sleep problems

19

Depressed people fall asleep but ____ ____, unable to get back to sleep, and they enter REM sleep within 45 minutes after going to sleep.

awaken early

20

In addition, people who are depressed have more than the average number of ____ ____ per minute during REM sleep.

eye movements

21

In short, ____ ____ is a lifelong trait of people who are predisposed to depression.

altered sleep

22

Surprisingly, although most people feel worse after a sleepless night, a night of total ____ ____ is the quickest known method of relieving depression.

sleep deprivation

23

However, the benefit is brief, as the depression usually returns after the next night's sleep. Also, while sleep deprivation helps alleviate depression, it increases ____ to ____.

sensitivity to pain

24

A more practical solution is to alter the ____ ____, going to bed earlier than usual.

sleep schedule

25

Depression can be either unipolar or bipolar. People with ____ ____ vary in between normality and one pole – depression.

unipolar disorder

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