Many people respond well on ____, either because of spontaneous recovery over time or because of the expectation that the pill induced.
____ patients particularly likely to respond to placebos.
Only for people with ____ ____ to the antidepressant drugs show meaningful advantage over placebos.
An alternative to the depressant drugs is ____. Reviews of the research literature find that antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy are about equally effective for treating all levels of depression, from mild to severe, with three exceptions.
Exception one, the drugs work better for ____, a long-term, almost lifelong condition of unhappy mood.
Exception two, antidepressants are generally ineffective for patients who have suffered ____ or ____ during early childhood or patients with multiple psychological disorders.
abuse or neglect
Exception three, psychotherapy is more likely to have long-term benefits, reducing the likelihood of a ____ months or years after the end of treatment.
The effects of antidepressants and those of psychotherapy overlap more than we might have guessed. Brain scans show that antidepressants and psychotherapy increase ____ in the same brain areas.
When people do not respond well to drugs or psychotherapy, one possibility is treatment through an electrically induced seizure, known as ____ ____ (ECT).
ECT does indeed ____ depression in many cases.
ECT today is used only with informed consent, usually for patients with ____ ____ who have not responded to antidepressant drugs.
ECT is usually applied every other day for about two weeks. Patients are given ____ ____ or anaesthetics to minimise discomfort and the possibility of injury.
The most common side effect of ECT is ____ ____.
The other serious drawback to ECT is the high risk of ____ into another episode of depression within a few months.
After ECT has relieved depression, the usual strategy is to try to ____ ____ by means of drugs, psychotherapy, or periodic ECT treatments.
Unlike antidepressant drugs, ECT increases the proliferation of new neurons in the ____.
A similar treatment is repetitive ____ ____ ____. An intense magnetic field is applied to the scalp, stimulating the axons near the surface of the brain.
transcranial magnetic stimulation
Almost everyone with depression has ____ ____, and the sleep problems generally precede the mood changes.
Depressed people fall asleep but ____ ____, unable to get back to sleep, and they enter REM sleep within 45 minutes after going to sleep.
In addition, people who are depressed have more than the average number of ____ ____ per minute during REM sleep.
In short, ____ ____ is a lifelong trait of people who are predisposed to depression.
Surprisingly, although most people feel worse after a sleepless night, a night of total ____ ____ is the quickest known method of relieving depression.
However, the benefit is brief, as the depression usually returns after the next night's sleep. Also, while sleep deprivation helps alleviate depression, it increases ____ to ____.
sensitivity to pain
A more practical solution is to alter the ____ ____, going to bed earlier than usual.
Depression can be either unipolar or bipolar. People with ____ ____ vary in between normality and one pole – depression.