The increasing prevalence of obesity obviously relates to the increased availability of our diet and our ____ ____.
Some people become obese and others do not, even when all have access to the same foods, so it is reasonable to ask what makes some people more _____ than others.
You probably noticed that most thin parents have thin children, and most heavy parents have heavy children. A Danish study found that the weights of 540 adopted children correlated more ____ with that of their biological relatives than with that of their adoptive relatives.
The Danish result was generally taken as evidence for a genetic influence, but it could just as easily be evidence for the effects of ____ ____.
In some cases, obesity can be traced to the effects of a single gene. The most common of these is a mutated gene for the receptor ____, one of the neuropeptides responsible for hunger.
People with a mutation in the gene for melanocortin overeat and become obese from __________.
However, these single gene mutations are ____, accounting for only a small percentage of obesity cases.
____ ____ is obesity that results from a medical condition.
____ ____ is a genetic condition marked by mental retardation, short stature, and obesity. People with this syndrome have blood levels of ghrelin 4 to 5 times higher than average.
Most cases of obesity relate to the ____ ____ of many genes and the environment.
One study found that mildly obese people spend more time sitting and less time moving about, both while they were obese and after they had lost weight. Evidently, their ____ habits were a lifelong trait, perhaps genetic in origin, rather than a reaction to being overweight.
In the United States, obesity is now officially classified as a ____, never mind the fact that we don't have a clear definition of what we mean by disease.
One consequence is that people are released from thinking of themselves as morally guilty for being ____. Another consequence is that some may decide to give up.
Many psychologists now recommend ____ ____ in diet (eat a little less than usual) on the expectation that more people will stick to this diet, and making a small change is better than failing to make a large change.
The most successful ____ of obesity require a change of lifestyle, including increased exercise as well as decreased eating.
Particularly important advice to reduce or eliminate intake of ____ ____.
One reason is that nearly all soft drinks are sweetened with ____, sugar that does not increase insulin or leptin nearly as much as other sugars do. Therefore, if you drink something with fructose, you gain calories without feeling satiety.
____ soft drinks and do not contain fructose, but they pose a different problem.
If diet and exercise fails to help someone lose weight, and other option is __________.
Four years, the most effective combination was _____: fenfluramine increases the release of serotonin and blocks its reuptake. Phentermine blocks the uptake of norepinephrine and dopamine and therefore prolongs their activity. The fen-phen combination produces brain effects similar to those of a completed meal.
A replacement drug, ____ (Meridia), which blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, decreases meal size and binge eating.
The drug ____ (Xenical) prevents the intestines from absorbing up to 30% of fats in the diet.
Finally, if someone with extreme obesity fails to respond to other treatments, an option is ____ ____ ____, in which part of the stomach is removed or sewed off so that food cannot enter.
gastric bypass surgery
____ ____ is a condition in which people alternate between binges of overeating and periods of strict dieting. Many, but not all, induce themselves to vomit.
About 95% of people with bulimia also suffer from ____, ____, or other emotional problems.
On average, people with bulimia show a variety of biochemical abnormalities, including increased production of ____, a hormone associated with increased appetite.
The biochemistry is probably the result of the ____ and ____, rather than a cause. After therapy that decreases the symptoms of bulimia, the ghrelin and other body chemicals return toward normal levels.
binges and purges
We can regard the bulimic cycles of dieting and binge eating as an ____.