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175.205 Brain and Behaviour > Multi-choice > Flashcards

Flashcards in Multi-choice Deck (190):
1

which of the following is a functional explanation for why bird sings?

Birds sing to defend territories and to attract males

2

Statement A: small charged molecules cannot cross the cell membrane by simple diffusion.
Statement B: the greater the amount of dendritic branching on a neuron, the lower its threshold of firing

Statement A is true; statement B is false

3

_____ are glia that help synchronise axonal activity

Astrocytes

4

Which of the following is impossible in the mammalian central nervous system

As a stimulus grows stronger, associated sensory neurons produce stronger action potentials.

5

if a neuron has a spontaneous firing rate

IPSPs and EPSPs modify the frequency of its action potentials.

6

The presence of an all-or-none law suggests that neurone can only convey different messages by changing their:

rate of action potentials

7

which of the following is not a catecholamine?

Serotonin

8

the effect of Ritalin (methylphenidate) on the synapse is most similar to that of:

cocaine

9

the ability of cannabinoids to reduce nausea is most likely mediated by_____

serotonin

10

StatementA: the Amygdala plays a major role in hormone secretion.
StatementB: Damage to the parietal lobe tends to create problems with locating objects in space

Statement A is false, Statement B is true

11

If I wanted to locate the hippocampus, it would be best to start looking

ventral posterior to the amygdala

12

The sympathetic nervous system consists of two paired chains of ______ lying just to the right and left of the spinal cord on the latter's _______ region

ganglia; thoracic and lumbar.

13

Compared to neurons in the other cortical areas, prefrontal cortex neurone tend to

have more dendritic spines

14

Statement A: a lesion is damaged to the brain tissue whereas an ablation is the removal of brain tissue
Statement B: Brain evoked potentials are usually studied using fMRI

Statement A is true; statement B is false

15

a defected limb

has lost its sensory input, AND
can be used when the animal concerned has no other choice

16

Various types of____cells refine the input to ganglion cells enabling the latter to respond specifically to shapes, movement, and other visual features

amacrine

17

The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the

thalamus

18

Which of the following areas has the greatest preferential sensitivity to complex visual stimuli, such as faces

inferior temporal cortex

19

Damage to the magnocellular pathway would likely lead to the loss of

motion perception

20

The receptor cells of the auditory system are:

directly attached to the basilar membrane AND
located in the cochlea

21

________ frequency sounds cause maximum displacement of the basilar membrane at its_______

High; base AND Low; apex

22

Which two structures provide information about vestibular sensation?

Cochlea and otolith organs

23

A low level of pain causes the release of_____, whereas more intense pain also releases______

glutamine; substance P

24

The finger-to-nose test is conducted when damage to the ______ is suspected

cerebellum

25

Statement A: Extensive damage to the globes pallid us results in involuntary jerky movements
Statement B: The supplementary motor cortex is essential for inhibiting a habitual action when another action is required.

Both statements are true

26

Which of the following is a symptom of Parkinson's disease

Inability to initiate spontaneous movement when there is no stimulus to guide actions, AND Depression, AND Slowness of movement

27

Which is the usual age range for the onset of huntington's disease?

30 to 50 years of age

28

A key area of the ______ important for regulating the biological clock is ______

Hypothalamus; suprachiasmatic nucleus

29

The ______ tract links the suprachiasmatic nucleus to special retinal ______ cells that are directly responsive to light

retinohyothalamic; ganglion

30

The pontomesencephalon is part of the reticular formation

True

31

Mice that lack orexin have trouble

sating awake during their active phase (night).

32

Some set points vary considerably over time, responding to changes in the environment. This adaptability is known as

allostasis

33

Cells in the _______ of the hypothalamus monitor _______ temperature

Preoptic area; their own and skin

34

The left hemisphere appears more responsive to emotional stimuli than the right

False

35

Depression is linked to ______ serotonin activity and aggressive behaviour is linked to ______ serotonin activity

low;low

36

Statement A: a person who has developed a tolerance for alcohol is likely to show cross-tolerance for amphetamine
Statement B: Endozpines decrease anxiety

both statements are false

37

PTSD victims tend to have a ____ Hippocampus and ________ cortisol levels compared to normal people

smaller; lower

38

One would most accurately describe H.M.'s memory problems as the inability to form

new declarative memories

39

most Korsakoff's patients have a loss or shrinkage of neurone throughout the brain, but especially in the

dorsomedial thalamus

40

someone with a mild to moderate level os alzheimer's disease would be most likely to remember

how to drive a car

41

the most enduring form of LTP depends on the changes in the

pre- and postsynaptic neurones

42

the right hemisphere of the human brain receives visual input from the

the right half of each retina

43

Characteristics of the brain of people with Williams syndrome is

decreased grey matter, especially in areas relating to visual processing.

44

which of the following could Alex the parrot do?

form concepts AND count AND name colours

45

electrconvulsive therapy (ECT) increases the proliferation of new neurone in the

hippocampus

46

Statement A: tricyclic drugs block the reuptake of all catecholamines except for norepinephrine
Statement B: antidepressant drugs don't have their effects on snaps for about two weeks

both statements are false

47

the age of schizophrenia is

usually earlier foemen than women.

48

Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which both ______ play a role

glutamine and dopamine

49

Emotional control does not fully develop until people reach their late teens because it takes that long for the frontal lobes to full mature. This is a (n)______ explanation

ontogenetic

50

If a person inherit one gene for blue from one parent and one for brown eyes from the other, that person will be brown-eyed

True

51

Humans have _____ pairs of chromosomes all of which with the exception of oner are _______.

23; autosomal

52

statement A: Small charged molecules cannot cross the cell membrane by simple diffusion
Statement B: the greater the amount of dendritic on a neuron the lower the threshold of firing

Statement A is true, Statement B is false

53

When a neuron is at rest, hat is responsible for moving potassium ions out of the cell?

the concentration gradient

54

which two factors taken together will affect the spread of the action potential

the presence of myelin and the diameter of the axon

55

If an axon is electrically stimulate at its middle, any resulting nerve impluse

will cancel out

56

Potassium channels are voltage-activiated
At the peace of an action potential potassium ions are driven out of the cell by the concentration gradient but not the electrical gradient
The sodium-potassium pump draws sodium ions into the cell and expels potassium ions

False

57

which two factors taken together will affect the speed of the action potential?

the presence of the myelin and the diameter of the axon

58

if an axon is electrically stimulated at its middle, any resulting nerve impulse

wail travel in both directions, towards the end bulb and towards the axon hillock.

59

Statement A: graded potentials are all depolarisations
Statement B: the temporal summation of three or more EPSPs will always be sufficient to get a nerve impulse started

False

60

why do dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine share in common?

They are all synthesised from the same amino acids

61

The most abundant _________ transmitter in the vertebrate brain is glutamate, which has _______ effects at most of its synapses

excitatory; iontropic

62

Opiates agonise ________ receptors in the brain whereas hallucinogens stimulate a type of _______ receptors

endorphin; serotonin

63

Type _________ alcoholism has a slow onset and a relatively _________ genetic basis

2; weak

64

the Bell-Magendie law states that _______ information is handled by the _______ spinal cord.

sensory; dorsel

65

The reticular formation and the rap he system are contained in the

pons and medulla

66

the basal ganglia are _______ to the lateral ventricles and _______ to the anterior commissure

Laterial; dorsal

67

all cells in a given column in the cerebra cortex

are involved in the am function

68

Evoked potentials in the brain are most likely to be detected by a (n)

EEG

69

Statement A: ischemic strokes are more common than hemorrhagic strokes
Statement B: collateral sprouting is not always beneficial

both statements are true

70

Collateral sprouting partially explains whys person with a phantom arm feels stroking on it when her face is stroked
A deafferented limb has lost its sensory input

True

71

Retinal cells furthest away grin the incoming light are

rods and cones

72

Statement A: the gene causing colour vision deficient is on chromosome 6
Statement B: lateral inhibition increases the brightness of an object

Both statement are false

73

the optic nerve sends most of its information directly to the ______, part of the _______

lateral geniculate; thalamus

74

The ______, part of the _______, is involved in face recognition

fusiform gyrus, inferior temporal cortex

75

Vibrations of the fluid in the ______ displace hair cell, the latter responding to the vibrations in __________

Cochlea; Microseconds

76

Nerve deafness, otherwise known as ___, can produce ____

inner ear deafness, tinnitus

77

Pacinian corpuscles respond best to

high frequency vibrations

78

The cerebellum plays a major role in which of the following two functions?

attention and timing

79

The brain of Parkinson's disease patients may compensate for dopamine loss by

activating more postsynaptic receptors

80

The abnormal protein inHuntington's disease is called _______, usually found ______ neurons

huntingtin; inside

81

Statement A: Core body temperature reaches its daily low about six hours after sleep onset
Statement B: Most people find it easier to adjust their clocks when they fly across time zones rom east to west

Statement A is false, Statement B is true

82

The ______ path to the suprachiasmatic nucleus comes from specialised ganglion cells tat produce a photopigment called _______

retinohypthalamic; melanopsin

83

Aside from problems with failing to breathe at times during the night, people with sleep apnea are also found to have

fewer than the normal number of neurone in certain brain areas

84

Sleep spindles, occurring mostly during ____ sleep, _____ in number after new learning

Stage 2; increase

85

Two closely relate areas that monitor body temperature are the

anterior hypothalamus and the pre optic area

86

which of the following is characterised by extreme physiological arousal

panic attack

87

The left hemisphere is more responsive to emotional stimuli than the right

False

88

Increased fear, anxiety, or panic is related in increased activity of _______ and decrease of _________

CCK; GABA

89

Statement A: natural killer cells are a primary cause of autoimmune disease
Statement B: a leukocyte is a white blood cell

Statement A is false, statement B is true

90

which area of a monkey's brain has to be intact for it to successfully perform in a delayed non matching-to-sample task?

the hippocampus

91

The ____ is especially important for ________ memory

Hippocampus; spatial and episodic

92

Korsakoff's syndrome is a disorder most often associated with damage to the

anterior thalamus and mammillary bodies

93

At many hippocampal synapses long-term potentiation depends on the activation of _______ receptors responding to _______

NMDA, glutamate

94

Total destruction of one of the branches of the nerve after it has crossed the optic chasm would result in the loss of vision in the

Contralateral visual field

95

Statement A: Change blindness is the inability to consistently attend to an image as it is alternately exposed to each eye
Statement B The degree of spatial neglect is dependant upon which part of the parietal lobe has been damaged

Statement A is false, statement B is true

96

you are a psychiatrist dealing with a severely depressed, probably suicidal, patient. Wanting a fast acting treatment, you would most limey recommend

electroconvulsive therapy

97

Tricyclic drugs work by

preventing the presynaptic cell from reabsorbing catecholamines

98

Which of the following has the least heritability?

Late onset Parkinson's disease

99

Which type of behaviour describes how a structure or behaviour develops

Ontogenetic

100

It could be argued that the fright you experience when confronted by a burglar is a the some thing as the pattern of activity in your brain at that time. What form of monism is this?

Identity position

101

Statement A: The X chromosome has genes for about 27 proteins
Statement B: Males are more likely than females to exhibit colour vision deficiency because of a gene that is sex-limited

both statements are false

102

Astrocytes synchronise the activity of associated neurons

True

103

_______ the membrane permeability to ______ would depolarise the neuron

Increasing; Sodium ions

104

Local neuron graded potentials are not subject to the all-or-none law

True

105

Statement A: the duration of the refractory period dos not affect a neuron's firing rate
Statement B: The relative period precedes the absolute refractory period

Both statements are false

106

When a neuron's membrane is t rest, the concentration gradient tends to move sodium _______ to cell and the electrical gradient tends to move it ______ the cell

into; into

107

Which of the following is true about EPSPs

The decay over time and space

108

After a meal rich in tryptophan, which neurotransmitter level would increase the most?

serotonin

109

metabotropic effects

are generally slower than ionotropic effects

110

________ is released by the ________

Cortisol; adrenal gland

111

One reason why a drug can produce different effect, including different side effects, in different people is that

the proportion of different receptor types varies among people

112

In the parasympathetic nervous system, the preganglionic fibres are ________, and the postganglionic fibres are ________.

Long; short

113

Statement A: A CT scan is based on multiple X-rays
Statement B: An ablation involves the complete removal of a brain area

Both statements are true

114

The basal ganglia are a cluster of related areas in the brain. Technically, a more correct name for these areas would be the basal

nuclei

115

Reflexive changes in heart rate and breathing, when you are exercising, for example, are regulated by the

medulla

116

Damage due to an ischemic stroke can be minimised by administering a drug which

breaks up blood clots

117

Collateral sprouting

is an everyday occurrence that helps maintain normal brain function

118

Prolonged practice with a violin from an early age

increases the growth in the somatosensory cortex

119

_________ cells near the fovea in primates are called _________ cells

Ganglion; midget ganglion

120

Statement A: Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are called photopigments
Statement B: in each retina row outnumber cones 120:1

Statement A is true, statement B is false

121

Small receptive fields are to ________ cells as large receptive fields are to __________ cells

Parvocellular; magncellular

122

At the level of the rods and cones the _________ theory of colour vision fits best, whereas at the level of the bipolar cells the _________ theory fits best

Trichromatic; opponent process

123

The receipt cells of the auditory system are

attached to the basilar membrane

124

To what kind of tomes do the cells of the primary auditory cortex respond best?

Patterns of tones

125

Statement A: Motor responses to pain occur at the same speed as motor responses to a simple touch
Statement B: Like the opiates, cannabinoids relieve pain by blocking pain receptors in the central nervous system

Both statements are false

126

If I wanted to study parallel fibres and Purkinje cells I should look for them in the

cerebellar cortex

127

The posterior parietal cortex

keeps track of the position of the body relative to the work

128

Which of the following is a major imitation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease with L-Dopa?

It loses much of its effectiveness in the late stages of the disease.

129

What happens if people in an environment in which the cycle of light and dark is other than 24hours?

People generally adjust better if the new cycle is close to 24 hours (e.g. 25)

130

The suprachiasmatic nucleus

has a direct link with the optic nerve

131

cells in the basal forebrain increase arousal and wakefulness by releasing

acetycholine

132

Statement A: when we are at rest, almost two thirds of the energy we produce is used to keep our body temperature constant
Statement B: A constant flow of blood through the anterior pituitary gland is critical for controlling body temperature

Statement A is true, statement B is false

133

In response to infection, leukocytes release proteins called

cytokines

134

Approach and avoidance responses are modified by output from the amygdala to the

prefrontal cortex

135

Benzodiazepine tranquillisers affect GABA synapses by

facilitating the binding of GABA to thee receptors

136

Statement A: a surprising feature of people with PTSD is that, on average they have a lower than normal cortisol levels
Statement B: a chronically high level of cortisol is harmful because it causes the death of natural killer cells

Statement A is true, statement B is false

137

A conditional eye blink in a rabbit can be eliminated by suppressing activity in small nucleus in the

cerebellum

138

Statement A: Long-term depression (LTD) occurs when a group of axons has been relatively under stimulated compared to others in their vicinity
Statement B: A synapse that increases its effectiveness when there is simultaneous activity in both pre- and post-synaptic neurone is called a Hebbian synapse

both statements are true

139

One treatment for Alzheimer's disease is to give a drug that stimulates

acetylcholine receptors

140

Total destruction of one of the two beaches of the optic nerve after it has crossed the optic chasm would result in the loss of vision in the

contralateral visual field

141

Wernicke's aphasia is also known as __________ aphasia

fluent

142

Electroconvulsive therapy increases the proliferation of new neurone in the

hippocampus

143

A side effect of some anti-psychotic drugs is that they block dopamine receptors in the ________ causing ______

mesostriatal system; tardive dyekinesia

144

Most depressed people show ______ activity in the _______ prefrontal cortex

decreased; left

145

typical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in

reducing negative symptoms

146

Explaining differences in running speed as a function of different muscle fibre types is an example of a(n) ________ explanation

Physiological

147

Most mutation produce

Recessive genes

148

Invertebrate axons are ____________

unmyelinated

149

what type of glial cell myelinated axons in the spinal cord: Radial glia, schwann cells, or astroglia?

none of the above

150

The net effect of each cycle of the sodium-potassium pump is to

decrease the number of positively charged ions within the cell

151

Statement A: the absolute refractory period precedes the relative refractory period in time
Statement B: the duration of the refractory period has no effect on a neurone's firing rate

Statement A is true, statement B is false

152

if a neuron has a spontaneous firing rate

IPSPs and EPSPs modify the frequency of its action potentials

153

when a neurotransmitter selectively opens chloride gates in the postsynaptic membrane

chloride ions enter the neuron causing an IPSP

154

activation of auto receptors tends to

decrease further neurotransmitter releases

155

in general, a single neuron releases ______ neurotransmitter(s), and can respond ______ neurotransmitter(s)

two or more; many

156

Endogenous cannabinoids act to

decreases neurotransmitter release from presynaptic neurons

157

The Bell-Magendie law states that ______ information is handled by the ______ spinal cord

sensory; dorsal

158

Statement A: most sensory information entering the mammalian brain goes first to the hypothalamus and then to the thalamus
Statement B: the main neurotransmitter released by nucleus basal is neurone is acetylcholine

Statement A is false, statement B is true

159

TH e raphe system _______the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli, and sends axons to the ______

increases; forebrain

160

on average, women have a greater density of neurones in the temporal lobe compared to men

True

161

Both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes impair ______, resulting in an accumulation of sodium ions ______ neurons

the sodium-potassium pump; inside

162

One way of relieving phantom limb pain is to

have the amputee to use an artificial limb

163

Statement A: Ganglion cells are the retinal cells closest to the incoming light
Statement B: the visual pathway in the temporal cortex are collectively known as the ventral stream

both statements are true

164

At the level of the rods and cones the ______ theory fits best, whereas at the level of the bipolar cells the _______ theory fits best

Trichromatic; opponent precess

165

the enchantment of contrast at the edge of an object is primarily due to lateral inhibition by the

horizontal cells

166

a person with visual agnosia is unable to

recognise visual objects

167

basilar membrane is stiffest at its ______ where ______ frequency sounds excite hair cells

base; high

168

humans localise low frequency sounds by detecting differences in______ at the two ears, and high frequency sounds by ______ differences

phase; intensity

169

a dermatome

an area of skin innervated by a given spinal nerve

170

Statement A: morphine helps control sharp cutting pain but not dull aching pain
Statement B: the endorphin-releasing periaqueductal gray area is in the pre-frontal cortex

both statements are false

171

The motor cortex produces a kind of activity called a(n) _____ before voluntary movement

readiness potential

172

the basal ganglia lie in the ______, and its main output pathways go to the ______

subcortical forebrain; thalamus

173

the _______ path to the suprachiasmatic nucleus comes from specialised ganglion cells that produce a photopigment called _______

retinohypothalamic; melanopsin

174

_______ synchronisation of firing among neurone causes EEG waves to grow ________

increased; larger

175

which are more common in NREM sleep than in REM

sleep walking AND night terrors

176

Statement A: Dreams begin with bursts of spontaneous firing cells
Statement B: Sleep spindles show up a EEG waves of about 12-14 Hz

both statements are true

177

Humans expend most of their energy on

basal metabolism

178

the set point for body temperature varies across the day

true

179

Damage to the insular cortex results in a diminished ability to experience and recognise

disgust

180

Benzodiazepines relieve anxiety by _____ transmission at ______ synapses

facilitating; GABA

181

Most Korsakoff's syndrome victims have a loss or shrinkage of neurone throughout the brain, but especially in the

dorsomedial thalamus

182

at many hippocampal synapses, long term potentiation depends on the activation of _____ receptors responding to ________

NMDA; glutamate

183

The left hemisphere of the brain receives visual input from the

left side half of each retina

184

A split-brain patient who sees an object in her left visual field can point to it with her

left hand but can not call out its name

185

As well as reading difficulties, people with dyslexia have

attentional difficulties

186

Statement A: Most people with clinical depression have increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex and decreased activity in the right
Statement B: The benefits of antidepressant drugs (relative to placebos) are greater for people with severe as compared to mild depression

Statement A is false, statement B is true

187

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) increases the proliferation of new neurone in the

hippocampus

188

alternating personalities

is not a characteristic of schizophrenia

189

One side effect of some anti-psychotic drugs is that they block dopamine receptors in the ______ causing ______

Mesostriatal system; tardive dyskinesia

190

Why did the girl fall of the swing?

because she had no arms

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