The amygdala also has axons to areas of the prefrontal cortex that control ____ and ____ responses.
approach and avoidance
Additional axons from the amygdala extend to ____ areas that relay information to the pons to control the startle reflex.
The amygdala is important for learning ____ to fear.
If you are attacked or if you have other traumatic experiences, you become ____ ____ in a wide variety of situations.
This long-term, generalised emotional arousal depends on a brain area called the bed nucleus of the ____ ____. The ____ ____ is a set of axons that connect this nucleus to the amygdala.
Studies using fMRI showed that the human ____ responds strongly when people look at photos that arouse fear or photos of faces showing fear. To a lesser extent it also responds to faces showing happiness or sadness.
Contrary to what we might guess, the amygdala response most strongly when a facial expression is a bit ____ or difficult to interpret.
The amygdala responds more strongly to the expression that is hard to interpret. Presumably the arousal indicates that is ____ ____ to make sense of the stimulus.
____ ____ effects much of life – even, according to one study, political attitudes.
The interpretation is that people with a highly reactive amygdala are likely to perceive dangers, and therefore to support strong ____ against those dangers.
Is possible to study damage limited to the amygdala only in people with the rare genetic disorder ____ ____.
People with Urbach-Wiethe disease suffer skin lesions, and may also accumulate ____ in the amygdala until it wastes away.
Much of the research on this condition Urbach-Wiethe disease deals with a woman knowing by her initials, SM. SM describes herself as ____, and she certainly acts that way.
SM's fearlessness is ____ to her. She's been held up at gunpoint and knifepoint and has been physically assaulted repeatedly. Evidently she plunges into dangerous situations without the caution other people would show. When she describes these events, she remembers being angry, but not afraid.
SM and other people with Urbach-Wiethe disease often fail to recognise emotional ____ in faces, especially expressions of fear or disgust.
Even when people with Urbach-Weithe disease recognise an expression as fear or disgust, they rated it ____ ____ than other people do, and they are less likely than average to remember a photo of an emotional expression if they see the same photo an hour later.
Seeing the ____ is particularly important to recognise fear. People express happiness with the mouth, but fear mainly with the eyes.
These observations suggest an alternative interpretation of the function of the ____. Instead of being responsible for feeling fear or other emotions, perhaps it is responsible for detecting emotional information and directing other brain areas to pay attention to it in the proper way.
Most psychological disorders include increased ____ is one of the symptoms.
In generalised anxiety disorder, phobia, and panic disorder, the only major symptom is ____ ____.
____ ____ is characterised by frequent periods of anxiety and occasional attacks of rapid breathing, increased heart rate, sweating, and trembling – that is, extreme arousal of the sympathetic nervous system.
Panic disorder is more common in women than in men and far more common in ____ and young adults than in older adults.
Curiously, panic disorder occurs in about 15% of people with ____ ____, commonly known as being "double-jointed". Even when people joint laxity do not have panic disorder, they tend to have stronger fears that most other people do.
Research so far links panic disorder to some abnormalities in the ____ and not necessarily the amygdala.
Panic disorder is associated with increased activity of the neurotransmitter GABA and increased levels of ____. ____ is associated with maintaining wakefulness and activity. Drugs that block ____ receptors block panic responses.