People with ____ ____, formerly known as manic-depressive disorder, alternate between two poles – depression and its opposite, mania.
____ is characterised by a restless activity, excitement, laughter, self-confidence, rambling speech, and loss of inhibitions.
People who have full-blown episodes of mania are said to have _________.
bipolar I disorder
People with __________ have milder manic phases, called hypomania, characterised by agitation or anxiety.
bipolar II disorder
In addition to the ____ ____, most people with bipolar disorder have attention deficits, poor impulse control, and impairments of verbal memory.
A genetic predisposition for bipolar disorder is supported by the usual types of evidence – ____ ____ and adoption studies.
They have also demonstrated that some of the genes that predispose to major depression also ____ to bipolar disorder. However, the genes merely increase the risk. None of the genes showed a strong relationship to the disorder.
The first successful treatment for bipolar disorder, and still the most common one, is ____ ____.
____ stabilises mood, preventing a relapse into either mania or depression.
To other effective drugs are ____ and ____.
valproate and carbamazepine
Lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine have many effects on the brain. One effect they share is that they decrease the number of AMPA type ____ ____ in the hippocampus. Excessive glutamate activity is responsible for some aspects of mania.
Preliminary studies suggest that getting people to maintain a consistent ____ ____ in a dark, quiet room reduces the intensity of mood swings in bipolar disorder.
One more form of depression is ____ ____ ____ (SAD) – depression that recurs during a particular season, such as winter.
seasonal affective disorder
SAD differs from other types of depression in many ways. For example, patients with SAD have _____ sleep and temperature rhythms – becoming sleepy and wakeful later than normal – unlike most other patients with depression, whose rhythms are phase-advanced.
Many people with SAD have a mutation in one of the genes responsible for regulating the ____ ____.
It is possible to treat SAD with very ____ ____ for an hour or more each day.