7.2 The Mechanical Senses Flashcards Preview

175.205 Brain and Behaviour > 7.2 The Mechanical Senses > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.2 The Mechanical Senses Deck (31):
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Vestibular sensation. When you move your head, the ____ ____ adjacent to the cochlea monitors movement and directs compensatory movements of your eyes.

vestibula organ

1

The ____ ____ respond to pressure, bending, or other distortions of the receptor. They include touch, pain, and other body sensations, as well as vestibular sensation, which detects the position and movement of the head.

mechanical senses

2

Sensations from the vestibular organ detect the direction of tilt and the amount of acceleration of the head. Vestibular sensations are critical for guiding eye-movement and ____ ____.

maintaining balance

3

The vestibular organ, consists of the ____, ____, and three semicircular canals.

saccule : utricle

4

The vestibular receptors are modified ____ receptors.

touch

5

Calcium carbonate particles called ____ lie next to hair cells, when the head tilts in different directions, the otoliths push against different sets of hair cells and excite them.

otoliths

6

The three ____ ____, oriented in perpendicular planes, are filled with a jellylike substance and lined with hair cells.

semicircular canals

7

Acceleration of the head at any angle causes the ____ ____ in one of these canals to push against the hair cells.

jellylike substance

8

Action potentials initiated by cells of the vestibular system travel through part of the ____ ____ ____ to the brainstem and cerebellum. (The eighth cranial nerve contains both an auditory component and a vestibular component.)

eighth cranial nerve

9

The ____ system, the sensation of the body and its movements, is not one sense but many, including discriminative touch (which identifies the shape of an object), deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle, and the position and movement of the joints.

somatosensory

10

Receptor: ____ ____ ____. Location: near base of hairs and elsewhere in skin. Responds to: pain, warmth, cold.

Free nerve ending

11

Receptor: ____ ____. Location: hair-covered skin. Responds to: movement of hairs.

Hair-follicle receptors

12

Receptor: ____ ____. Location: hairless areas. Responds to: sudden displacement of skin; low-frequency vibration (butter).

Meissners corpuscles

13

Receptor: ____ ____. Location: both hairy and hairless skin. Responds to: sudden displacement of skin; high-frequency vibration.

Pacinian corpuscles

14

Receptor: ____ ____. Location: both hairy and hairless skin. Responds to: light touch.

Merkel's disks

15

Receptor: ____ ____. Location: both hairy and hairless skin. Responds to: stretch of skin.

Ruffini endings

16

Receptor: ____ ____ ____. Location: mostly or entirely in hairless areas, perhaps including genitals. Responds to: uncertain.

Krause end bulbs

17

A ____ ____ maybe a simple bare neutron ending (e.g., many pain receptors), a modified dendrite (Merkel's discs), an elaborated neuron ending (Ruffini endings and Meissner's corpuscles), or a bare ending surrounded by other cells that modify its function (Pacinian corpuscles).

touch receptor

18

Stimulation of a touch receptor opens ____ channels in the axon, thereby starting an action potential.

sodium

19

Information from touch receptors in the head enters the central nervous system (CNS) through the ____ ____.

cranial nerves

20

Information from receptors below the head enters the spinal-cord and passes toward the brain through the 31 ____ ____, including 8 cervical nerves, 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves, 5 sacral nerves, and 1 coccygeal nerve.

spinal nerves

21

Each spinal nerve has a ____ component and a ____ component.

sensory : motor

22

Each spinal nerve innervates (connects to) a limited area of the body called a ____. Each dermatome overlaps one third to one half of the next dermatome.

dermatome

23

The various areas of the somatosensory thalamus send their impulses to different areas of the ____ ____ ____, located in the parietal lobe.

primary somatosensory cortex

24

To parallel strips in the ____ ____ respond mostly to touch on the skin. Two other parallel strips respond mostly to deep pressure and movement of the joints and muscles.

somatosensory cortex

25

The primary somatosensory cortex is essential for touch experiences. Damage to somatosensory cortex impairs ____ ____.

body perceptions

26

____, the experience provoked by harmful stimulus, directs your attention toward a danger and holds your attention.

Pain

27

With pain the ____ cortex continues responding as long as the pain lasts.

prefrontal

28

Pain sensation begins with the least specialised all receptors, a ____ ____ ____.

bare nerve ending

29

____, the chemical found in hot peppers such as jalapenos, also stimulates the receptors for painful heat. ____ can produce burning or stinging sensations on many parts of your body.

Capsaicin

30

The axons carry pain information have little or __ ____ and therefore conduct impulses relatively slowly, and the range of 2 to 20 m/s.

no myelin

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