Schizophrenia was originally called dementia praecox, which is Latin for "____ ____ ____".
premature mental deterioration
In 1911, Eugene Bleuler introduced the term ____.
Although the term is Greek for "split mind", it is not related to ____ ____ ____ (previously known as multiple personality disorder), in which someone alternates among different personalities.
disassociative identity disorder
What Bleuler meant by schizophrenia was a split between the ____ and ____ aspects of experience: the persons emotional expression or lack of it seems unconnected with current experiences.
emotional and intellectual
_____ of schizophrenia is difficult. In most areas of medicine, a physician can confirm a diagnosis with a lab test of some sort. Psychiatry has no dependable lab tests.
According to the DSM-IV, to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, someone must have deteriorated in everyday functioning (work, interpersonal relationships, self-care, etc.) for at least ____ ____, and must show at least two of the following, that are not attributable to other disorders.
_____ – unjustifiable beliefs, such as "beings from outer space are controlling my actions".
____ – false sensory experiences, such as hearing voices when alone.
____ ____ – rambling or incoherent speech.
Grossly ____ behaviour.
Weak or absent signs of ____, ____, and ____.
emotion, speech, and socialisation
The first four items on the list – delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, and disorganised behaviour – are called ____ ____ (behaviours that are present that should be absent).
Weak or absent emotion, speech, and socialisation are ____ ____ (behaviours that are absent that should be present). Negative symptoms are usually stable overtime and difficult to treat.
The ____ symptoms are limitations of thought and reasoning that are common in schizophrenia, even if they are not central to the diagnosis.
The most typical type of thought disorder of schizophrenia is a difficulty understanding and using ____ ____. Related symptoms include deficits in attention and working memory.
The main problem is disordered thoughts that result from ____ ____ between the cortex and the thalamus and cerebellum. The disordered thinking may lead to the hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms.
Even if someone's symptoms match the description of schizophrenia perfectly, it is important to make a ____ ____ – that is, one that rules out other conditions with similar symptoms.
____ ____ with psychotic features: people with depression frequently have delusions, especially delusions of guilt or failure. Some report hallucinations also.
____ ____: many of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia can develop from prolonged use of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, LSD, or phencyclidine (Angel dust).
____ ____: damage or tumours in the temporal or prefrontal cortex often produce some of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
____ ____ ____: sometimes, someone who is starting to have trouble hearing things that everyone else is whispering and starts to worry. Delusions can develop.
Undetected hearing defects
____ ____: the symptoms of Huntington's disease include hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking, as well as motor symptoms.
____ ____: Niacin deficiency can produce hallucinations and delusions, and so can a deficiency in vitamin C or an allergy to milk proteins.
Worldwide, about ___________ suffer from schizophrenia at some point in life.
1% of people
Schizophrenia occurs in all ____ ____ in all parts of the world. However, it is significantly more common in cities than in rural areas.