2.1 Cells Of The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

175.205 Brain and Behaviour > 2.1 Cells Of The Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.1 Cells Of The Nervous System Deck (21):
0

The nervous system consists of two kinds of cells: ____ and ____.

neurons and glia

1

____ receive information and transmit it to other cells.

Neurons

2

Neurons have much in common with the rest of the body's sells. The surface of the cell is its ____ (or plasma membrane), a structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment.

membrane

3

The membrane is composed of two layers of ___ ____ that are free to flow around one another.

fat molecules

4

Except for mammalian red blood cells, all animal cells have a ____, the structure that contains the chromosomes.

nucleus

5

A ____ is the structure that performs metabolic activities, providing the energy that the cell requires for all other activities.

mitochondrion

6

Mitochondria require ____ and ____ to function.

fuel and oxygen

7

____ are the sites at which the cell synthesises new protein molecules.

Ribosomes

8

Proteins provide ____ ____ for the cell and facilitate various chemical reactions.

building materials

9

Some ribosomes float freely within the cell. Others are attached to the ____ ____, a network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesised proteins to other locations.

endoplasmic reticulum

10

Unlike most other body cells, neurons have long branching extensions. The larger neurons have these components: ____, a ____ (cell body), an ____, and ____ terminals.

dendrites, a soma (cell body), an axon, and presynaptic terminals

11

A motor neuron has its soma in the ____ ____. It receives excitation from other neurons through its dendrites and conducts impulses almond its axon to a muscle.

spinal cord

12

A ____ neuron is specialised at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation, such as light, sound, or touch.

sensory

13

____ are branching fibres off the soma that get narrower near their ends.

Dendrites

14

The dendrites surface is lined with specialised synaptic ____, at which the dendrite receives information from other neurons.

receptors

15

Dendritic ____ are short outgrowths that increase the surface area available for synapses.

spines

16

The cell body, or ____, contains the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria. Most of the metabolic work of the neuron occurs here.

soma

17

The ____ is a thin fibre of constant diameter. The ____ is the neuron's information sender, conveying an impulse toward other neurons or an organ or muscle.

axon

18

Many vertebrate axons are covered with an insulating material called a ____ ____ with interruptions known as ____ of ____.

myelin sheath : nodes of Ranvier

19

An axon has many branches, each of which swells at its tip, forming a ____ ____, also know as and end bulb or bouton.

presynaptic terminal

20

The presynaptic terminal is the point from which the axon releases ____ that cross through the junction between one neuron and the next.

chemicals

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