The hair cells excite the cells of the ____ ____. Which is part of the eighth cranial nerve.
According to ____ ____, the basilar membrane resembles the strings of a piano in that each area along the membrane is tuned to a specific frequency.
According to place theory, each frequency activates to hair cells at only ___ ____ along the basilar membrane, and the nervous system distinguishes among frequencies based on which neurons respond.
The downfall of place theory is that the various parts of the basilar membrane are ____ ____ too tightly for any part to resonates like a piano string.
According to ____ ____, the basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with the sound, causing auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at the same frequency.
Downfall of frequency theory in its simplest form is that the refractory period of a neuron, though variable, is typically about ________, so that the maximum firing rate of a neuron is about 1000 Hz, far short of the highest frequencies we hear.
The current theory is a ____ of both theories.
For ___-_____ sounds, the basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with the soundwaves, in accordance with frequency theory, and auditory nerve axons generate one action potential per wave.
Soft sounds activate fewer neurons, and stronger sounds activate more. Thus, at low frequencies, the frequency of impulses identifies the ____, and the number of firing cells identifies ____.
pitch : loudness
Because of the ____ ____ of the axon, as sounds exceed 100 Hz, it becomes harder for a neuron to continue firing in synchrony with the soundwaves.
According to the ____ ____ of pitch discrimination, the auditory nerve as a whole produces volleys of impulses or sounds up to about 4000 per second, even though no individual axon approaches that frequency.
When we hear very ____-_____, will use a mechanism similar to the place theory. The basilar membrane varies from stiff at its base, where the stirrup meets the cochlea, to floppy at the other end of the cochlea, the apex.
The highest frequency sounds vibrate cells near the ____, and low-frequency sounds vibrate hairs further along the membrane.
An estimated 4% of people have ____, impaired detection of frequency changes (commonly called Tone-deafness).
Many relatives of a person with amusia have the same condition, so it probably has a ____ basis.
Amusia is associated with a thicker than average ____ ____ in the right hemisphere but fewer than average connections from the auditory cortex to the frontal cortex.
____ ____ (or perfect pitch) is the ability to hear a note and identify it. People's accuracy on this task is either high or low. Intermediates are rare. The main determinant is early and extensive musical training.
As information from the auditory system passes through subcortical areas, axons crossed over in the _____ to enable each hemisphere of the forebrain to get most of its input from the opposite ear.
The information ultimately reaches the ____ ____ ____ (area A1) in the superior temporal cortex.
primary auditory cortex
The auditory system has a "____" pathway sensitive to patterns of sound in the anterior temporal cortex, and a "____" pathway sensitive to sound location in the posterior temporal cortex and the parietal cortex.
what : where
The superior temporal cortex includes areas important for detecting visual ____ and the ____ of sounds.
Patients with damage in parts of the ____ ____ ____ become motion deaf. They hear sounds, but they do not detect that a source of a sound is moving.
superior temporal cortex