Flashcards in 367-374 Deck (38):
What had guaranteed that Italy failed to develop a centralized monarchical state?
Papal opposition to the Hohenstaufens
What was the kingdom of Naples dominated by?
the French house of Anjou
What was Sicily ruled by?
the Spanish house of Aragon
Who became fairly well centralized territorial states?
Milan, Venice, Florence
Where was Milan located?
located at the crossroads of the main trade routes fro Italian coastal cities to the Alpine passes. it was one of the richest city-states in Italy
Who established themselves as dukes of Milan and extended their power over all of Lombardy?
members of the Visconti family
Who was the Visconti ruler of Milan?
What is a condottiere?
leader of a mercenary band
Who did Francesco Sforza turn on?
his Milanese employers
How did Venice grow rich?
from commercial activity throughout the eastern Mediterranean and into Northern Europe
What region did Florence dominate?
What did Cosimo de' Medici do in 1434?
assumed control of the ruling oligarchy
What was Urbino ruled by?
the Montefeltro dynasty
Who was the most famous of the ruling Italian women
Isabella d'Este, daughter of the duke of Ferrara.
Called the "first lady of the world"
Who did she attract to the Mantuan court?
artists and intellectuals
How many men where in French King Charles VIII's army?
he occupied the kingdom of Naples
Even though Niccolo Machiavelli was a diplomat for Florence, what eventually happened to him?
he was forced into exile
What did he write?
Who was Cesare Borgia?
the son of Pope Alexander VI
When did the struggle between the papacy and the seclaar monarchies begin?
during the pontificate of Pope Boniface VIII
What was the strongest statement ever made by a pope on the supremacy of the spiritual authority over the temporal authority?
Where was the pope captured?
Where did Clement V take residence?
Where was Avignon?
on the east bank of the Rhone RIver
Who's saintly demeanor and claims of visions from God led the city of Florence to send her on a mission to Pope Gregory XI in Avignon?
Catherine of Siena
Who was the leadership in convening a council eventually passed to?
the holy Roman emperor Sigismund
Who called for an end to the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church?
When did Catherine of Siena's admonition seem to be heeded?
when t long last Pope Gregory XI perceiving the disastrous decline in papal prestige, returned to Rome
Who did thecardinals elect as Pope?
Who was the other Pope?
What did this start?
the great schism
Who spported clement?
france,m Spain scotland, southern Italy
Who supported Urban
England, Germany, Scandinavia and most of Italy
Who was the lleadership in convning a council passed to?
the holy roman emperor Sigismund
Who was the new Pope elected?
Pope Martin V
What did John Hus call for?
an end to the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church
What did the Counci of Constance attempt to deal with?
growing problem of heresy