Flashcards in History-Rome Deck (42):
What did the Han Empire have in common with the Roman Empire?
1. Their empires lasted for centuries
2. Had great success in establishing centralized control over their
3. The were able to maintain their law and political institutions,
technical skills and languages.
Who were the first Romans and where did they establish themselves?
Romans were a group of Latin-speaking people who established a community at Latium in central Italy. They went on to conquer all of Italy and the entire Mediterranean world.
Who was Horatius?
A legendary Roman hero who was a guard at a bridge that was a weak point in Roman defenses. The bridge was over the Tiber River. When the Etruscans attacked, he stood alone and defened the bridge (others ran away). This confused the attackers long enough for the Roman soldiers to come and bring down the bridge. When he heard the bridge crash down he dove into the water and saw to safety. Rome had been saved by the courageous act of one Roman who knew his duty and was determined to carry it out. Courage, duty and determination-the qualities that served many Romans who believed it was their divine mission to rule nations and peoples.
How did geography impact Rome?
Mountains were less rugged than those surrounding Greece so it was not divided into small isolated communities. They also possessed more productive agricultural land than Greece which enabled it to support a large population.
Rome had access to the sea but was far enough inland to be safe from pirates.
It was built on 7 hills and was easily defended.
It was a natural crossing point for north-south traffic.It had a good central location from which to expand. Central location made governing much easier.
According to legend, who founded Rome and when?
Twin brothers Romulus and Remus in 753bc.
What type of people were early Romans?
Early Romans were pastoral people who spoke Latin. Early Romans were under control of 7 kings (two of which were Etrucans who left their mark) Rome began as a pastoral community but ended up a city.
Under Etruscan influence, what did Rome accomplish?
They had an outstanding building program and they constructed the first roadbed for the chief road through Rome. They oversaw development of temples, markets, shops,streets and houses.
What was the name of the first, main road through Rome?
The Sacred Way
Who was one of the chief ancient sources for the history of early Rome?
How did Livy use his stories to teach Romans?
He wanted to tech moral value and virtues such as tenacity duty courage and especially discipline
What gave Rome considerable control over a large part of Italy?
The conquest of the Samnites also brought them into direct contact with Greek communities
What influence did the Greeks have on Rome?
*cultivated the olive and the vine
*provided artistic and cultural models through sculpture architecture and literature
What system did Rome devise to rule Italy?
The Roman Confederation
What was the Roman Confederation?
Rome allowed some people to have full Roman citizenship (Latins)
The remaining communities were made allies and were free to run their own local affairs but were required to provide soldiers for Rome. Loyal allies could improve their status and become Roman citizens.
Why did the Roman Confederation work?
Romans found a way to give conquered people a stake in Rome's success.
What helped explain Rome's success?
Although opportunistic, once embarked on a course of expansion, Rome pursued consistent policies. They were superb diplomats
What are some characteristics of Roman's that made them successful?
*Excelled at making correct diplomatic decisions
*rebellion crushed without mercy
*shrewd in extending their citizenship
*good persistent soldiers
*practical sense of strategy (as they conquered they settled)
*by insisting on military service from its allies, they mobilized the entire military might of all Italy for its wars
Who were the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic?
the consuls and praetors
Who were the consuls?
two, chosen annually administered the government and lead roman army into battle
they possessed "imperium" which was "the right to command"
Who were the praetors?
Praetors primary function was execution of justice
he also possessed imperium and could govern rome of the consuls were away from the city
he was in charge of civil law
Why was another praetor added in 242?
Rome's growth caused them to add another praetor to judge cases in which one or both people were non citizens
Who else had special duties in Rome?
a number of administrative officials such as administrators of financial affairs and supervisors of public games
What was the Roman Senate?
*senate or counsel of elders,was a select group, 300 men, served for life
*they could only advise magistrates but their advice was taken seriously
*the force of law
What was the centuriate assembly
most important assembly
it was the Roman army functioning in a political role
it organized classes based on wealth and wealthy citizens always had the majority
they elected chief magistrates and passed laws
Who were the counsel of Plebes?
*came about as a result of the struggle of orders (social divisions) 471
*an assembly for plebeians only with officials known as tribunes of plebes who were given power to protect plebeians on new law that aloud marriage between patricians and plebeians and plebeians were permitted to become consuls in 287 this counsel received the right to pass laws for all Romans
What were the two groups Rome was divided into?
Patricians and Plebeians
Who were the Patricians?
Consisted of those families who were descended from the original senators appointed during the period of kings
they constituted an aristocratic governing class
only they could be consuls, other magistrates, and senators
they controlled the Centuriate assembly and many other facets of Roman life
Who were the Plebeians
a larger group of independent unprivileged poorer vulnerable men
they were nonpatrician large landowners less wealthy land holders
artisans merchants and small farmers
they were citizens but didn't have the same rights as patricians
How were the Patricians/ Plebeians similar/different?
Both could vote but only patricians could be elected
Both could make legal contracts in marriages but inter marriage between the groups was forbidden
these differences caused plebeians to seek both political and social equality which started a struggle which lasted 100s of years
lead to success for the plebeians
How did the struggle between the two classes impact the development of Rome's constitution?
*Plebeians could hold highest offices of state
*Plebeians could inter marry with Patricians
*They could pass laws binding on the entire Roman community
*Made all Roman citizens equal under the law
*allowed all to strive for political office
*It formed a new senatorial aristocracy (due to inter marriage of groups) therefore, Roma had not become a democracy
Who was a formidable opponent of Rome?
Why was Carthage important?
*located in North Africa in a favorable position for commanding Mediterranean trade routes
*important commercial center
*politically and militarily strong
*it had a monopoly on western Mediterranean trade
*largest and richest state in the area
*Position in Sicily made Romans nervous
What led to the Punic wars?
mutual suspicions drove Rome and Carthage into a lengthily struggle in control of western Mediterranean
What led to the first Punic war?
Romans decided in intervene in a struggle between two Sicilian cities
the Carthaginians considered it a cause for war
Both sides were determined on conquest of Sicily
Who won the first punic war and how?
Rome (a land power) won after developing a substantial fleet
Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily and had to pay indemnity to Rome
Sicily became the first Roman province
Carthage vowed revenge
How did the second punic war start?
When the Romans encouraged one of Carthage's spanish allies to revolt against Carthage
Hannibal, greatest Carthaginian general, struck back
How did the second Punic war turn out?
Rome ultimately won, but Hannibal inflicted a series of defeats on the Romans, but he didn't have enough men or equipment
Rome was forced the reconquer some Italian cities after Hannibal's success
What battle marked Rome's defeat of Hannibal's forces?
After forcing Carthaginians out of Spain, Rome forced Carthaginians to recall Hannibal from Italy
At the battle of Zama they defeated Hannibal's forces and the war was over
What were the terms of the peace treaty?
Carthage lost Spain
They agreed to pay indemnity to Rome and promised not to go to war without Rome's permission
Spain became a Roman province
Rome became a dominant power in the western Mediterranean
What led to a third and final struggle wit Carthage?
Carthage broke a peace treaty with Rome by going to war against Rome's North African allies
Rome used this opportunity to completely destroy Carthage
Who famously advocated this destruction by saying "and I think Carthage must be destroyed"
Cato, a conservative politician